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Sphyraena

Actinopteri - Sphyraenidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1792Sphyraena Walbaum
1835Sphyraena Agassiz p. 42ff
1902Sphyraena Hay p. 400
1924Sphyraena Chapman and Cudmore p. 146
1926Sphyraena White p. 59
1926Sphyraena de Beaufort p. 133
1938Sphyraena Weiler p. 24
1966Sphyraena Casier p. 243
1978Sphyraena Schultz p. 206
1981Sphyraena Thurmond and Jones p. 102
1998Sphyraena Stringer p. 150
1999Sphyraena Weems p. 64
2001Sphyraena Purdy et al. p. 179
2002Sphyraena Sepkoski, Jr.
2007Sphyraena Schwarzhans p. 338
2012Sphyraena Fierstine et al. p. 144
2014Sphyraena Bannikov p. 29
2014Sphyraena Carnevale et al. p. 44
2017Sphyraena Szabo et al.
2018Sphyraena Carnevale and Godfrey p. 190

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
classActinopteri()
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
Teleosteomorpha
Teleostei(Müller 1846)
RankNameAuthor
Osteoglossocephalai
ClupeocephalaPatterson and Rosen 1977
Euteleosteomorpha
NeoteleosteiRosen 1973
Eurypterygia(Rosen 1973)
Ctenosquamata
Acanthomorphata(Rosen 1973)
Euacanthomorphacea
Percomorphaceae
Carangimorpharia
Carangimorphariae
familySphyraenidae
genusSphyraenaWalbaum 1792

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: omnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 20:44:22
Modified: 2009-07-20 22:44:22
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Maastrichtian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 72.10000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 70.6 Ma

Collections (68 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Kansas) S. carinata (77321)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Maharashtra) S. sp. (58102)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Italy S. bolcensis (94830)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Gujarat) S. sp. (71438)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) S. bognorensis (13299)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Pakistan S. sp. (79971)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Virginia) S. bognorensis (15595)
Early/Lower Eocene - Middle Eocene55.8 - 37.2United Kingdom (England) S. sp. (3257)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Germany (Lower Saxony,) S. fluctuosa (188954)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3Nigeria S. lugardi (60711)
Lutetian47.8 - 41.3USA (Alabama) S. sp. (13346)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Mississippi) S. major (61249)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0USA (Louisiana) S. major (3534)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Nigeria S. lugardi (32905)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Arkansas) S. sp. (16549)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Louisiana) S. major (55251 75638) S. sp. (32925)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9Western Sahara S. sp. (96686 96688)
Priabonian38.0 - 33.9USA (Georgia) S. sp. (45640)
Early/Lower Oligocene33.9 - 28.4France S. sp. (69805)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Germany (Baden-Württemberg) S. sp. (68021)
Rupelian33.9 - 28.1Hungary S. pannonica (124377) S. sp. (186636)
Whitneyan33.3 - 30.8USA (Florida) S. sp. (17341)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) S. sp. (32012)
Chattian28.1 - 23.03USA (Mississippi) S. sp. (49872)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Costa Rica S. sp. (187875)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97India (Gujarat) S. sp. (65798)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil S. cunhai (112581)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Indonesia (Maros) S. crassidens (187654)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Saudi Arabia S. sp. (47026)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Brazil (Para) S. cunhai, S. egleri (65162)
Early/Lower Miocene23.03 - 15.97Venezuela (Lara) S. sp. (145379)
Aquitanian - Langhian23.03 - 13.82USA (North Carolina) S. barracuda (48887)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Italy S. sp. (70814)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97Pakistan (Balochistan) S. sp. (77783)
Burdigalian - Tortonian20.44 - 7.246France S. olisiponensis (187577)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82Mexico (Baja California) S. sp., S. barracuda (52183)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82USA (Virginia) S. barracuda (79793 187324)
Langhian15.97 - 13.82France S. sp. (90354)
MN 515.97 - 13.65Austria S. sp. (51002)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608India (Orissa) S. obtusata (46365)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62Slovakia (Bratislava) S. sp. (58983)
Serravallian13.82 - 11.62USA (Virginia) S. barracuda (126605)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Czech Republic (Mikulov) S. substriata (161993 161995)
Badenian13.65 - 12.7Poland S. substriata (162017)
Early/Lower Clarendonian13.6 - 10.3USA (Florida) S. sp. (161374)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246USA (Virginia) S. barracuda (152251)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Panama S. barracuda (24237)
Tortonian11.62 - 7.246Venezuela S. sp. (200110)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Portugal S. olisiponenesis (56459)
Late/Upper Miocene11.608 - 5.333Costa Rica (Limon) S. barracuda (162678)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (Florida) S. barracuda (46369)
Zanclean5.333 - 3.6USA (North Carolina) S. barracuda (52582)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Jamaica S. sp. (186673)
Pliocene5.333 - 2.588Angola S. barracuda (154111)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Australia (Victoria) S. novaehollandiae (204328)
Irvingtonian1.8 - 0.3USA (Florida) S. barracuda (20400)
Late/Upper Pleistocene (interglacial)0.126 - 0.0117USA (Georgia) S. sp. (20604)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) S. sp. (57706 73485)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (South Carolina) S. sp. (188304)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (California) S. argentea (190889)
Late/Upper Pleistocene - Holocene0.126 - 0.0Greece (Argolida) S. sphyraena (182709)