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Actinopteri - Clupeiformes

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1859Clupeiformes Bleeker
1964Clupeiformes Estes p. 48
1981Clupeiformes Thurmond and Jones p. 95
1982Clupeiformes Grande p. 5
1988Clupeiformes Case and Schwimmer p. 300
1989Clupeiformes Shoshani et al. p. 435
2001Clupeiformes Purdy et al. p. 164
2002Clupeiformes Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Clupeiformes Forey et al. p. 228
2005Clupeiformes Murray et al. p. 301
2006Clupeiformes Nelson
2009Clupeiformes De Figueiredo
2011Clupeiformes Long p. 243
2012Clupeiformes Fierstine et al. p. 15
2013Clupeiformes Betancur-R. et al.
2014Clupeiformes Bannikov p. 26
2015Clupeiformes Marramá and Carnevale
2018Clupeiformes Carnevale and Godfrey p. 167

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
Teleostei(Müller 1846)
ClupeocephalaPatterson and Rosen 1977
orderClupeiformesBleeker 1859
orderClupeiformesBleeker 1859

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: carnivoreo
Comments: planktivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:03:52
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:03:52
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Barremian to the top of the Holocene or 129.40000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 125.0 Ma

Collections (159 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Brazil (Alagoas) Pseudoellimma gallae (135830)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Brazil Ellimma cruzi (63322)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Brazil (Sergipe) Nolfia riachuelensis (140003)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Lebanon Scombroclupea macrophthalma, Scombroclupea diminuta (124426)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Morocco (Meknès-Tafilalet) Lusitanichthys africanus (136829)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Morocco (Er Rachida) Lusitanichthys sp. (120457)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8USA (South Dakota) Clupeoidea indet. (181902)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6Italy (Gorizia) Clupeiformes indet. (103811 116133)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6Tajikistan (Asht) Portheus sp. (53132)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Wyoming) Portheus sp. (105717)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (North Carolina) Portheus sp. (123474)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Italy Clupeiformes indet. (35332)
Late/Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Antarctica Knightia andreae (150274)
Late/Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Portugal (Coimbra) Clupea arezedi (49228)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Argentina (Salta) Gasteroclupea branisai (114766)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Andhra Pradesh) Clupeidae indet. (122240) Clupeidarum sp. (27014)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Maharashtra) Clupeidae indet. (58102)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Bolivia (Cochabamba) Gasteroclupea branisai (12855)
Danian66.0 - 61.6Mexico (Chiapas) Clupeidae indet. (190739)
Selandian61.6 - 59.2Denmark Clupeidarum rectiventralis (159793)