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Pycnodontiformes

Actinopteri - Pycnodontiformes

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1937Pycnodontiformes Berg
1970Pycnodontiformes Applegate p. 401
1981Pycnodontiformes Thurmond and Jones p. 84
1987Pycnodontiformes Kumar and Loyal p. 68
1988Pycnodontiformes Case and Schwimmer p. 297
1999Pycnodontiformes Goodwin et al. p. 732
1999Pycnodontiformes Weems p. 54
2002Pycnodontiformes Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Pycnodontiformes Forey et al. p. 228
2005Pycnodontiformes Poyato-Ariza and Wenz
2007Pycnodontiformes Poyato-Ariza and Bermúdez-Rochas
2010Pycnodontiformes Poyato-Ariza p. 651
2011Pycnodontiformes Long p. 242
2014Pycnodontiformes Bannikov p. 25
2019Pycnodontiformes Tong et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
RankNameAuthor
Osteichthyes()
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
classActinopteri()
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
orderPycnodontiformesBerg 1937
orderPycnodontiformesBerg 1937

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: durophageo
Diet 2: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:40:08
Modified: 2013-12-06 12:04:31
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sakmarian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 295.50000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 290.1 Ma

Collections (267 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1USA (Kansas) Stemmatodus sp. (130815)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Hungary Sphaerodus sp. (156154)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Italy Brembodus ridens (121996 121997)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Austria Mesodon hoeferi (122455)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Italy (Lombardia) Gibbodon cenensis (59639)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Luxembourg (Diekirch) Pycnodontiformes indet. (56047)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Lorraine) Pycnodontiformes indet. (36106)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Franche-Comté) Gyrodus milium (149410) Sphaerodus minimus (149408)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (Wales) Sphaerodus sp. (72293)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Belgium (Gaume) Pycnodontiformes indet. (68882)
Liasicus201.3 - 196.5Belgium Eomesodon liassicus (40087)
Planorbis201.3 - 196.5United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131892)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131994 131995)
Spinatum189.6 - 183.0Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Pycnodontiformes indet. (189042)
Falciferum183.0 - 182.0Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Grimmenodon aureum (186714)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom Mesodon discoides (131999) Pycnodus rugulosus (131998) Pycnodus sp., Pycnodus rugulosus, Pycnodus bucklandi, Mesodon tenuidens, Mesodon biserialis (131844)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1France Pycnodus rugulosus (131997)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Midi-Pyrénées) Coelodus sp., Macromesodon sp. (61377)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Pycnodontidae indet. (31054)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France Macromesodon sp. (61378)