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Holocephali (chimaera)

Chondrichthyes -

Holocephali was named by Bonaparte (1832). It is extant.

It was reranked as the unranked clade Holocephali by Gadow (1898); it was reranked as the subclass Holocephala by Hay (1902); it was corrected as Holocephala by Jaekel (1911); it was reranked as the superorder Holocephali by Zangerl (1981), Kriwet and Gazdizicki (2003) and Darras et al. (2008); it was reranked as the class Holocephali by Purdy et al. (2001); it was misspelled as Holocephala by Säve-Söderbergh (1934), Cassier (1966), Duffin (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Cvancara and Hoganson (1993) and Sepkoski (2002); it was reranked as the subclass Holocephali by Jordan (1963), Delsate et al. (2002) and Long (2011).

It was assigned to Pisces by Gadow (1898); to Placoidea by Jaekel (1911); to Elasmobranchii by Leidy (1873), Hay (1902) and Jordan (1963); to Elasmobranchii by Säve-Söderbergh (1934) and Cassier (1966); to Elasmobranchii by Duffin (1981) and Cvancara and Hoganson (1993); to Chordata by Purdy et al. (2001); to Subterbranchialia by Kriwet and Gazdizicki (2003) and Darras et al. (2008); and to Chondrichthyes by Zangerl (1981), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Delsate et al. (2002), Sepkoski (2002) and Long (2011).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1832Holocephali Bonaparte
1873Holocephali Leidy p. 350
1898Holocephali Gadow p. 6
1902Holocephala Hay p. 322
1911Holocephala Jaekel p. 52
1934Holocephala Säve-Söderbergh p. 17
1958Bradyodonti Arambourg and Bertin
1963Holocephali Jordan p. 605
1964Bradyodonti Obruchev p. 362
1966Holocephali Cassier p. 98
1977Paraselachii Lund
1981Holocephali Duffin p. 470
1981Holocephali Thurmond and Jones p. 77
1981Bradyodonti Thurmond and Jones p. 78
1981Holocephali Zangerl p. 46
1982Bradyodonti Lund p. 939
1993Holocephali Cvancara and Hoganson p. 12
1997Euchondrocephali Lund and Grogan
2000Euchondrocephali Grogan and Lund p. 220
2000Paraselachii Grogan and Lund p. 220
2001Holocephali Purdy et al. p. 161
2002Holocephali Delsate et al. p. 25
2002Holocephali Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Holocephali Kriwet and Gazdizicki p. 34
2004Paraselachiamorpha Goto and Okura p. 219
2006Paraselachimorpha Nelson p. 46
2008Holocephali Darras et al. p. 301
2011Holocephali Long p. 242

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassHolocephali(Bonaparte 1832)
subclassHolocephali(Bonaparte 1832)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektobenthico
Diet: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-21 06:36:22
Modified: 2009-07-21 08:36:22
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Wagner 2017, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Caradoc to the top of the Waipipian or 460.90000 to 3.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 449.5 Ma

Collections (482 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Caradoc460.9 - 449.5USA (Colorado) Dictyorhabdus priscus (10380)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Russian Federation Bradyodonti indet. (35710 35711 35712)
Givetian387.7 - 382.7France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) Melanodus loonesi (90628)
Late/Upper Devonian382.7 - 358.9USA (California) Cochliodontiformes indet. (206454)
Late/Upper Famennian364.7 - 360.7USA (Pennsylvania) Ageleodus pectinatus (35044)
Kinderhookian360.7 - 353.8USA (Montana) Psammodus sp. (545)
Early/Lower Mississippian360.7 - 345.3USA (Iowa) Physonemus pandatus, Physonemus hamuspiscatorius, Erismacanthus barbatus (133258)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Iowa) Deltodus spatulatus (133270)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Alabama) Psammodus sp., Petalodus sp. (84103)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Kentucky) Peripristis semicircularis (133266)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2United Kingdom Cochliodus magnus (132784) Erismacanthus jonesi, Physonemus arcuatus, Cochliodus contortus, Polyrhizodus magnus, Petalodus davisii, Ctenoptychius dentatus, Petalodus serratus, Polyrhizodus colei, Polyrhizodus elongatus, Polyrhizodus attenuatus, Glossodus lingusbovis, Mesolophodus problematicus, Copodus cornutus, Copodus spatulatus, Copodus furcatus, Mesogomphus lingua, Pleurogomphus auriculatus, Psammodus trapeziformis, Psephodus magnus, Xystrodus striatus, Paecilodus jonesii, Paecilodus gibbosus, Streblodus oblongus, Streblodus colei, Deltoptychius acutus, Erismacanthus major (137333) Helodus lavissimus, Petalodus rectus, Ctenoptychius apicalis, Physonemus arcuatus, Poecilodus sublaevis, Helodus turgidus, Chomatodus linearis, Psammodus rugosus, Cochliodus contortus, Chomatodus clavatus, Chomatodus denticulatus, Chomatodus truncatus, Chomatodus oliquus, Cochliodus acutus, Cochliodus magnus, Cochliodus oblongus, Cochliodus striatus, Ctenoptychius serratus, Erismacanthus jonesii, Glossodus marginatus, Helodus didymus, Helodus mammillaris, Helodus planus, Helodus rudis, Petalodus hastingsii, Petalodus psittacinus, Petalodus sagittatus, Physonemus subteres, Poecilodus jonesii, Poecilodus oliquus, Poecilodus parallelus, Polyrhizodus magnus, Polyrhizodus pusillus, Psammodus canaliculatus, Psammodus cornutus (132781) Orodus ramosus, Petalodus flabellula, Psephodus salopiensis, Psephodus dubius, Sandalodus morrisii, Stichacanthus coemansi, Stichacanthus tortworthensis (137332) Petalodus acuminatus, Chomatodus clavatus (132782) Petalodus aliformis, Petalodus acuminatus, Climaxodus imbricatus, Ctenoptychius serratus, Poecilodus foveolatus (132729) Petalodus rectus, Petalodus acuminatus, Cochliodus magnus, Cochliodus striatus, Petalodus hastingsii, Poecilodus jonesii, Psammodus cornutus (132783) Pristicladodus goughi (132788) Psammodus rugosus (132789)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Indiana) Helodus incisus (133271)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9USA (West Virginia) Petalodus sp. (124708)
Osagean353.8 - 342.8USA (Indiana) Sandalodus sp. (6670)
Osagean353.8 - 342.8USA (Iowa) Deltodus spatulatus, Deltodus occidentalis, Chomatodus inconstans (133094)
Visean346.7 - 330.9Egypt Psammodus sp., Psephodus sp. (46983)
Visean346.7 - 330.9Russian Federation (Komi) Venustodus sp., Orodontidae indet. (133366)
Visean346.7 - 330.9Belgium Taeniodus contortus (133095)
Chadian345.3 - 345.0United Kingdom (England) Psephodus magnus (5970)
Chadian345.3 - 345.0USA (Indiana) Chomatodus sp. (2455)