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Cidaroida (pencil urchin)

Echinoidea - Cidaroida

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1957Cidaroida Durham and Melville p. 251
1966Cidaroida Fell p. U317
1991Cidaroida Smith p. 15
1993Cidaroida Donovan p. 94
1995Cidaroida Smith p. 123
2001Cidaroida Boczarowski p. 94
2002Cidaroida Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Cidaroida Donovan et al. p. 102
2009Cidaroida Smith
2009Cidaroida Webster et al. p. 248
2010Cidaroida Kroh and Smith p. 169
2015Cidaroida Smith p. 4

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermata
RankNameAuthor
subphylumEchinozoa
classEchinoidea()
subclassCidaroidea(Claus 1880)
orderCidaroida()
orderCidaroida()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calciteo
Ontogeny: accretion, addition of partsp
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: slow-movingo
Life habit: low-level epifaunalo
Diet: grazero
Diet 2: omnivoreo
Vision: limitedc
Dispersal: watero
Dispersal 2: planktonico
Created: 2004-02-28 12:08:25
Modified: 2009-12-13 03:42:21
Source: o = order, c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Aberhan 1992

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sakmarian to the top of the Holocene or 295.50000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 290.1 Ma

Collections (949 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Permian298.9 - 252.17Japan (Gifu) Miocidaris spinulifera, Miocidaris platyacantha (204371)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1Australia (Western Australia) Cidaroida indet. (120566)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Venezuela (Merida) Cidaroida indet. (41514)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3USA (Texas) Cidaroida indet. (43589)
Roadian272.3 - 268.8USA (Texas) Cidaroida indet. (43551 43563) Miocidaris sp. (105742)
Wordian268.8 - 265.1USA (Texas) Cidaroida indet. (43550)
Capitanian265.1 - 259.9USA (Texas) Eotiaris guadalupensis (101798 102618 105893) Miocidaris connorsi (106127)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Germany Miocidaris keyserlingi (94445 161466)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17United Kingdom (England) Archaeocidaris verneuiliana (130765 130766) Miocidaris keyserlingi (24085 109717)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Pakistan Eocidaris forbesiana (82633 119544 119545 119546)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17United Kingdom Cidaris sp. (130834 130870 130871) Miocidaris keyserlingi (161465)
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17Bosnia and Herzegovina Archaeocidaris keyserlingi (206739 206740)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17Italy Miocidaris sp. (44450)
Griesbachian252.17 - 251.3Pakistan Cidaroida indet. (110945 110951) Miocidaris pakistanensis (110936)
Triassic252.17 - 201.3Hungary (Bakony) Miocidaris sp., Plegiocidaris sp., Cidaris alata, Cidaris fasciculata (56068)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Lenticidaris utahensis (116017)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Lenticidaris sp. (62977 62991 63005 63007 63015) Lenticidaris sp., Lenticidaris utahensis (62974 63205) Lenticidaris utahensis (63006 63009 63029 63296 64715 72294) Miocidaris sp. (32933 32935 32936 32938 32959 32967 32972) Miocidaris utahensis (122198 122199 122201 122202 122204 122206 122208 122209)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Nevada) Miocidaris sp. (32943 32945)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Idaho) Miocidaris sp. (32977)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Montana) Miocidaris sp. (32975)