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Trionychinae (softshell turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1825Trionychinae Gray
1855Trionyx stiriacus Peters
1889Trionychinae Lydekker p. 4
1889Trionyx pliopedemontana Sacco
1891Trionyx bambolii Ristori
1913Trionyx stadleri Teppner
1918Trionyx desmostyli Matsumoto
1933Trionyx blayaci Bergounioux
1934Trionyx harmati Szalai
1935Trionyx dieupentalensis Bergounioux
1954Trionyx irregularis Bergounioux
1954Trionyx (Amyda) subangularis Bergounioux p. 87
1966Trionychinae Kuhn p. 30
1987Trionychinae Meylan
1988Trionychinae Holman and Case p. 328
1988Trionychinae Weems p. 118
1996Trionychinae Hutchison p. 339
1999Trionychinae Head et al.
2002Trionychinae Holman
2002Trionychinae Holroyd and Hutchison p. 181
2003Trionychinae Hutchison and Holroyd
2004Trionychinae Hutchison et al. p. 48
2006Trionychinae Head et al. p. 378
2007Trionyx desmostyli Hirayama p. 150
2007Trionychinae Karl p. 34
2007Trionychinae Staesche et al.
2011Trionychinae Danilov et al. p. 400
2012Trionychinae Vitek p. 4
2013Trionychinae Danilov and Vitek
2013Trionychinae Pérez-García et al.
2014Trionychinae van Dijk et al.
2017Trionychinae Georgalis and Joyce
2017Trionychinae Valdes et al. p. 121

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
RankNameAuthor
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
familyTrionychidaeGray 1825
Trionychinae(Gray 1825)
Trionychinae(Gray 1825)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
P. A. Meylan 1987Trionychid turtles with the nuchal bone at least three times wider than long, anterior and posterior costiform processes united, no peripheral bones, neural series always containing at least one reversal of neural orientation, depressions for articulation of ilia
absent from eighth pleural, a short bridge, two or more ossifications in the second branchial horn (except in some hurum), dorsal edge of apertura narium externum slightly to strongly emarginate, and epipterygoid typically fusing to pterygoid in adults.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Body part: carapacef
Adult length: 100 to < 1000f
Grouping: solitaryf
Environment: brackish, freshwaterf
Locomotion: actively mobilef
Life habit: aquaticf
Diet: piscivoref
Diet 2: carnivoref
Reproduction: oviparousf
Created: 2005-08-25 13:24:04
Modified: 2005-09-09 19:45:41
Source: f = family, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Ernst and Barbour 1989

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Barremian to the top of the Holocene or 130.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 125.45 Ma

Collections (526 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45United Kingdom (England) Trionyx sp. (26791)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5China (Heilongjiang) Trionyx jixiensis (169467)
Albian113.0 - 100.5USA (Montana) Trionyx sp. (50696)
Late/Upper Albian - Cenomanian105.3 - 93.9Uzbekistan (Navoi) Trionyx dissolutus (58471)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Uzbekistan (Karakalpakistan) Trionyx dissolutus (64098)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Kyrgyzstan (Osh) Dogania maortuensis (58483)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Dornogov) Trionyx baynshirensis (79702)
Cenomanian - Santonian100.5 - 83.6Mongolia (Omnogov) Trionyx sp. (130804)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0China (Nei Mongol) Dogania maortuensis (144650 144651)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan) Trionyx dissolutus (58466 59694) Trionyx species 3, Trionyx dissolutus (58490)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Navoi) Trionyx sp. (64685)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Mexico (Nuevo León) Trionyx sp. (115406)
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Trionychini indet., Aspideretoides riabinini, Trionyx kansaiensis (75943) Trionyx species 2 (46959)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Kazakhstan (Ongtustik Qazaqstan) Trionyx kansaiensis, Aspideretes sp., Paraplastomenus sp. (58719)
Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian86.3 - 70.6Kazakhstan (Qyzylorda) Aspideretoides riabinini, Trionyx kansaiensis, Paleotrionyx riabinini (68826) Trionyx kansaiensis, Paleotrionyx riabinini, Trionychidae indet. (53134) Trionyx sp. (127817)
Early/Lower Santonian85.8 - 83.5Tajikistan Trionyx riabinini, Aspideretoides riabinini, Trionyx kansaiensis (58701)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (Alberta) Aspideretes latus, Apalone latus (177169) Aspideretes planus (177141) Aspideretes rugosus (177140) Aspideretes subquadratus, Trionyx foveatus (123085) Aspideretoides splendidus (177024 177029)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mongolia (Omnogov) Trionyx gilbentuensis (154402) Trionyx sp. (100265)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (North Carolina) Trionyx sp. (106277)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Mongolia (Omnogov) Trionyx sp. a (38705)