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Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish)

Actinopterygii was named by Cope (1887). It is extant.

It was reranked as the order Actinopterygii by Gadow (1898), Woodward (1902) and Lambe (1908); it was reranked as the class Actinopterygii by Andrews (1906), Woodward (1916), Daly (1973), Schaeffer and Dalquest (1978), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Kumar and Loyal (1987), Case and Schwimmer (1988), Ahlberg (1991), Cvancara and Hoganson (1993), Weems (1999), Grande and Hilton (2006) and Poyato-Ariza (2010); it was reranked as the unranked clade Actinopterygii by Delsate (1997), Cartanyá (1999) and Delsate (2003); it was reranked as the superclass Actinopterygii by Betancur-R et al. (2013); it was reranked as the subclass Actinopterygii by Casier (1966), Miles (1977), Domning and Clark (1993), Carnevale (2007), Long et al. (2008), Denton (2013) and Carnevale and Godfrey (2018).

It was assigned to Teleostomi by Andrews (1906) and Woodward (1916); to Pisces by Lambe (1908) and Delsate (1997); to Teleostomi by Gadow (1898), Woodward (1902), Miles (1977) and Zalohar et al. (2009); to Osteichthyes by Delsate (2003), Long (2011) and Betancur-R et al. (2013); to Chordata by Fourriére et al. (2014); and to Osteichthyes by Casier (1966), Daly (1973), Schaeffer and Dalquest (1978), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Kumar and Loyal (1987), Case and Schwimmer (1988), Ahlberg (1991), Domning and Clark (1993), Cvancara and Hoganson (1993), Cartanyá (1999), Weems (1999), Meyer and Zardoya (2003), Grande and Hilton (2006), Carnevale (2007), Long et al. (2008), Poyato-Ariza (2010), Denton (2013) and Carnevale and Godfrey (2018).

Sister taxa
Actinopteri, Cladistia

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1839Lepidotus trotti Balsamo-Crivelli p. 427
1857Pholidophorus lepturus Bellotti
1857Semionotus dubius Bellotti
1857Lepidotus pectoralis Bellotti p. 420
1857Semionotus brevis Bellotti p. 422
1857Pholidophorus rueppelli Bellotti p. 428
1876Semionotus inornatus Henry p. 417 figs. Pl 2, fig 23
1885Semionotus mendozaensis Geinitz
1887Actinopterygii Cope
1890Palaeoniscoidae Rohon
1895Ophiopsis lepturus Woodward p. 172
1895Heterolepidotus pectoralis Woodward p. 312
1895Allolepidotus rueppelli Woodward p. 315
1898Actinopterygii Gadow p. 7
1902Actinopterygii Woodward p. 3
1906Actinopterygii Andrews p. 313
1908Actinopterygii Lambe
1910Ophiopsis lepturus de Alessandri p. 87 figs. Pl 3, fig 4
1910Ophiopsis lariensis de Alessandri p. 89 figs. Pl 3, figs 5,6
1910Eugnathus trottii de Alessandri p. 97 figs. Pl 5, fig 3
1910Heterolepidotus pectoralis de Alessandri p. 100 figs. Pl 5, fig 4; pl 6, fig 1; pl 7, fig 1
1910Heterolepidotus brevis de Alessandri p. 107 figs. Pl 7, fig 2
1910Allolepidotus rueppelli de Alessandri p. 118 figs. Pl 8, figs 3,4
1910Eugnathus trottii de Allessandri p. 97 figs. Pl 5, fig 3
1916Actinopterygii Woodward p. 23
1944Gyrolepidoides cuyanus Cabrera
1946Palaeoniscoidea Dunkle p. 402
1946Cenechoia paramillensis Rusconi
1946Eurynotus uspallatensis Rusconi
1946Pholidophorus dentatus Rusconi
1946Semionotus unicristatus Rusconi
1947Cenechoia sulcata Rusconi
1947Pholidophorus vallejensis Rusconi
1948Gyrolepidoides multistriatus Rusconi
1950Semionotus vallejensis Rusconi
1952Neochallaia leonensis Rusconi
1960Palaeoniscoidea Gardiner p. 241
1966Actinopterygii Casier p. 103
1973Actinopterygii Daly p. 564
1977Actinopterygii Miles
1978Actinopterygii Schaeffer and Dalquest p. 8
1981Actinopterygii Thurmond and Jones p. 80
1987Actinopterygii Kumar and Loyal p. 68
1988Actinopterygii Case and Schwimmer p. 297
1991Actinopterygii Ahlberg p. 280
1993Actinopterygii Cvancara and Hoganson p. 13
1993Actinopterygii Domning and Clark p. 413
1995Ophiopsis lepturus Bürgin p. 818 figs. 12-14
1995Palaeoniscimorpha Lund et al. pp. 215-220
1997Actinopterygii Delsate p. 129
1999Actinopterygii Cartanyá p. 540
1999Actinopterygii Weems p. 32
2001Furo trottii Lombardo p. 355 figs. 7-9; pl 2A
2002Palaeoniscimorpha Poplin and Lund
2003Actinopterygii Delsate p. 17
2003Actinopterygii Meyer and Zardoya
2004Palaeoniscimorpha Prokofiev
2006Actinopterygii Grande and Hilton p. 5
2007Actinopterygii Carnevale p. 8
2008Actinopterygii Long et al.
2009Palaeonisci Minikh and Minikh p. 144
2009Actinopterygii Zalohar et al. p. 80
2010Actinopterygii Poyato-Ariza p. 651
2011Actinopterygii Long p. 242
2013Actinopterygii Betancur-R. et al.
2013Actinopterygii Denton p. 786
2014Actinopterygii Fourriére et al. p. 380
2018Actinopterygii Carnevale and Godfrey p. 163

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2004-08-17 14:52:40
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:50:42
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum
Reference: Carroll 1988

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Emsian to the top of the Holocene or 407.60000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 393.3 Ma

Collections (3944 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Emsian407.6 - 393.3USA (Alaska) Actinopterygii indet. (79135)
Late/Upper Givetian - Early/Lower Frasnian388.1 - 382.4Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia) Moythomasia nitida, Moythomasia lineata (197071)
Givetian387.7 - 382.7United Kingdom (Scotland) Stegotrachelus finlayi (197264 197265)
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4Russian Federation Palaeoniscidae indet. (90343)
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4Australia (Western Australia) Moythomasia durgaringa (170988 197263)
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4Latvia (Koknese) Aldingeria perforata (197072)
Frasnian382.7 - 372.2Australia (Western Australia) Moythomasia durgaringa (136090)
Frasnian382.7 - 372.2Canada (Quebec) Cheirolepis canadensis (179176)
Famennian372.2 - 358.9Greenland (Northeast Greenland National Park) Cuneognathus gardineri (135941)
Kinderhookian360.7 - 353.8USA (Indiana) Rhadinichthys sp. (6730)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7Ireland Acrolepis sp. (76515)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2United Kingdom Acrolepis hopkinsi, Chirodus pesranae (132729) Mesolepis sp., Rhadinichthys elegantulus, Rhadinichthys angustulus, Phanerosteon mirabile, Elonichthys pulcherrimus, Elonichthys serratus, Holurus parki (140941)
Carboniferous358.9 - 298.9Russian Federation (Tuva) Senekichthys hirundo (136207)
Arundian345.0 - 342.8United Kingdom (Scotland) Canobius ramseyi, Cheirodopsis geikei, Paramesolepis tuberculata, Paramesolepis rhombus, Rhadinichthys tuberculatus, Rhadinichthys fusiformis, Rhadinichthys formosus, Rhadinichthys canobiensis, Styracopterus fulcratus, Mesopoma politum, Mesopoma crassum, Mesopoma macrocephallum, Tarrasius problematicus, Canobius elegantulus, Cycloptychius concentricus, Rhadinichthys macconochii, Phanerosteon mirabile, Elonichthys pulcherrimus, Elonichthys serratus, Acrolepis ortholepis, Holurus parki, Platysomus superbus, Mesopoma pulchellum (90682)
Holkerian - Asbian342.8 - 336.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Rhadinichthys ornatissimus, Rhadinichthys carinatus, Rhadinichthys brevis (140937)
Asbian339.4 - 336.0USA (Iowa) Palaeoniscoidei indet. (68318)
Chesterian339.4 - 318.1USA (Montana) Kalops diophrys, Kalops monophrys (136169)
Arnsbergian326.4 - 318.1United Kingdom (England) Elonichthys sp. (8255 8256 8257) Palaeoniscidae indet. (8424 8443 8444 8453 8454 8456 8612) Rhadinichthys sp., Palaeoniscidae indet. (8428)
Arnsbergian326.4 - 318.1USA (Montana) Aesopichthys erinaceus (116657) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Paratarrasius hibbardi, Lineagruan judithi, Lineagruan snowyi, Beagiascus pulcherrimus, Wendyichthys dicksoni, Wendyichthys lautreci, Cyranorhis bergeraci (116654) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Paratarrasius hibbardi, Lineagruan judithi, Wendyichthys dicksoni (116655) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Paratarrasius hibbardi, Lineagruan snowyi, Beagiascus pulcherrimus, Wendyichthys dicksoni (116763) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Proceramala montanensis, Paratarrasius hibbardi, Lineagruan judithi, Lineagruan snowyi, Beagiascus pulcherrimus, Wendyichthys dicksoni, Cyranorhis bergeraci (90681) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Wendyichthys dicksoni (116656 116659) Aesopichthys erinaceus, Wendyichthys dicksoni, Cyranorhis bergeraci (116764) Cyranorhis bergeraci (116658) Paratarrasius hibbardi, Beagiascus pulcherrimus, Wendyichthys dicksoni (116660) Wendyichthys dicksoni (116762)
Pendleian326.4 - 318.1United Kingdom (England) Actinopterygii indet. (22726)