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Hippomorpha

Mammalia - Perissodactyla

Taxonomy
Hippomorpha was named as a suborder.

It was reranked as the infraorder Hippomorpha by Prothero and Schoch (1989); it was reranked as the unranked clade Hippomorpha by Hooker and Dashzeveg (2004).

It was assigned to Perissodactyla by Ferrusquia-Villafranca (1969), McKenna (1975), Thurmond and Jones (1981) and Carroll (1988); to Mesaxonia by Prothero and Schoch (1989); and to Euperissodactyla by Hooker and Dashzeveg (2004).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1969Hippomorpha Ferrusquia-Villafranca
1975Hippomorpha McKenna p. 43
1981Hippomorpha Thurmond and Jones p. 183
1988Hippomorpha Carroll
1989Hippomorpha Prothero and Schoch p. 531
2004Hippomorpha Hooker and Dashzeveg p. 1379

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
orderPerissodactyla()
suborderLophodontomorpha
infraorderEuperissodactyla
Hippomorpha
Hippomorpha

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 30 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10 kgs
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: browsero
Diet 2: grazero
Created: 2005-08-26 13:57:26
Modified: 2005-08-26 15:57:26
Source: s = species, g = genus, o = order, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Legendre 1988, Nowak 1999, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Ji et al. 2002

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Wasatchian to the top of the Holocene or 55.80000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 50.3 Ma

Collections (4452 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Marne) Pliolophus vulpiceps, Hyracotherium leporinum (35537)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Île-de-France) Hyracotherium leporinum (68437)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Oise) Pachynolophus sp., Pliolophus quesnoyensis (68174)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Cymbalophus hookeri (178050)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (West Flanders) Equoidea indet. (68430)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8Belgium (Hainaut) Pachynolophus maldani, Sifrhippus sandrae, Cymbalophus cuniculus (87947)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8France (Hérault) Pachynolophus eulaliensis (181563)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom Hyracotherium cuniculus (87950)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8United Kingdom (England) Hyracotherium cuniculus (184228) Hyracotherium cuniculus, Cymbalophus cuniculus (133368) Hyracotherium leporinum (68436 68439) Hyracotherium leporinum, Hyracotherium vulpiceps (13299) Hyracotherium vulpiceps, Hyracotherium sp. (38868)
Ypresian - Lutetian56.0 - 41.3France (Occitanie) Lophiotherium sp., Propachynolophus gaudryi, Propachynolophus maldani, Pachynolophus livinierensis (195457)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Spain (Catalonia) Palaeotherium magnum (39012 39013 39015) Palaeotherium sp. (39011)
Eocene56.0 - 33.9Germany (Sachsen-Anhalt) Propalaeotherium hassiacum (45774) Propalaeotherium parvulum (45734 45798 45799) Propalaeotherium parvulum, Plagiolophus cartieri (45521 45738)
Graybullian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium pernix (15701) Hyracotherium sp. (15875) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15878)
Lostcabinian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15903 15915 15917 15930 16068 16073 16076 16078) Hyracotherium venticolum (15998 16000 16005) Hyracotherium venticolum, Hyracotherium craspedotum (15997) Orohippus sp., Hyracotherium vasacciense (15901 15945) Xenicohippus craspedotum, Hyracotherium venticolum (15999)
Lysitean55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium sp. (16061) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15881)
Lysitean55.8 - 50.3USA (Colorado) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15653)
Lysitean - Lostcabinian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Hyracotherium sp. (15451)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (North Dakota) Hyracotherium sp. (15895)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Texas) Hyracotherium angustidens (15838) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15847 200443 200445)
Wasatchian55.8 - 50.3USA (Wyoming) Arenahippus aemulor (15790 15826 15835) Arenahippus grangeri (15489 15497 15736 15747 15773 15884 16039 16040 16041 16042 16049 16050) Arenahippus pernix (118482) Arenahippus pernix, Hyracotherium sp. (15673) Eohippus index (15483) Equidae indet. (15841) Equidae indet., Protorohippus venticolum (186932 186933 186935 186936 186937 186939 186944 186946 186952) Equidae indet., Xenicohippus craspedotum (186931 186934) Hyracotherium aemulor (15511 15513 15514 15516 15517 15518 15520 15522 15523 15524 15531 15545 15728 15741 15742 15743 15744 15745 15757 15758 15767 15770 15798 15799 15800 15801 15802 15804 15810 15827 15828 15829 46641 46656 46666 46667 46672 46673 46674 46675 46686 46687 46688 46689 46693 46694 46697 46698 46721 46724 46769 46770 46771 46772 46773 46775 46776 46777 46778 46779 46782 46784 46789 46791 46792 46794 46795 46797 46798 46799 46800 46801 46805 46814 46815 46816 46817 46818 46819 46828 46830 46831 46832 46833 46834 46835 46836 46837 46838 46839 46840 46841 46844 46852) Hyracotherium aemulor, Hyracotherium grangeri (15510 15512 15532 15536 15538 15541 15542 15544 15546 15548 15549 46807 46809) Hyracotherium aemulor, Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index (15551 15553 15554) Hyracotherium angustidens (15467 15468 15469 15471 15472 15476 15478 15491 15493 15504 15515 15717 15879 15889 15912 15932 15943 15994 16016 16017 16020 16023 16028 16055) Hyracotherium boreale (15996) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium pernix (46692) Hyracotherium cristatum, Hyracotherium pernix (15694 46682 46683 46696 46699 46700 46701 46703 46704 46707 46711 46712 46714 46718 46729 46733 46734 46736 46740 46741 46742 46745 46746 46747 46748 46754 46755 46760 46761 46764 46767 46825 46826 46827 46847 46849) Hyracotherium grangeri (15458 15495 15503 15505 15507 15509 15540 15543 15547 15550 15560 15566 15568 15726 15727 15730 15731 15732 15733 15734 15735 15737 15738 15739 15740 15746 15748 15749 15750 15751 15752 15753 15754 15755 15762 15763 15764 15765 15766 15772 15774 15775 15777 15778 15779 15781 15786 15787 15788 15791 15792 15793 15794 15795 15796 15797 15808 15809 15813 15815 15816 15818 15819 15820 15821 15822 15824 15825 15944 46636 46637 46638 46639 46640 46642 46643 46644 46645 46646 46647 46648 46650 46652 46657 46659 46660 46661 46662 46664 46668 46669 46670 46671 46680 46681 46684 46685 46690 46691 46725 46726 46727 46744 46768 46774 46780 46781 46783 46785 46786 46787 46788 46790 46793 46803 46804 46806 46808 46812 46813 46821 46822 46823 46824) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index (15555) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium index, Hyracotherium pernix (15556 15557) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium pernix (15558 15567) Hyracotherium grangeri, Hyracotherium sandrae (15759 15761) Hyracotherium index (15937 16056) Hyracotherium index, Hyracotherium vasacciense (15964) Hyracotherium index, Hyracotherium venticolum, Orohippus proteros (15454) Hyracotherium montanum (15581) Hyracotherium pernix (15564 15768 15769 15782 15785 15803 15805 15806 15807 15811 15812 15814 46695 46702 46705 46706 46709 46710 46713 46715 46716 46717 46719 46720 46728 46730 46731 46732 46735 46738 46739 46743 46749 46753 46756 46757 46758 46759 46762 46763 46765 46766 46810 46811 46820 46843 46845 46846 46848 46851) Hyracotherium sandrae (15760 15771 15780) Hyracotherium sp. (15462 15552 15559 15572 15573 15577 15596 15597 15657 15720 15721 15722 15723 15724 15729 15756 15842 15843 15846 15891 15892 15893 15894 15898 15900 15914 15931 15933 15934 15936 15963 16008 16060 16062 16074 27268 46737 46751 46752 46829) Hyracotherium sp., Hyracotherium pernix (15455) Hyracotherium sp., Xenicohippus grangeri (15575 15576 15578) Hyracotherium vasacciense (15456 15479 15486 15661 15665 15669 15710 15711 15714 15839 15848 15852 15935 15957 16063 16067 16075) Hyracotherium vasacciense, Orohippus proteros (15902) Hyracotherium venticolum (15904 15906 15908 15927 15928 15946) Lophiotherium vasacciensis (131859) Orohippus sp. (15942) Protorohippus venticolum (186942 186943 186945 186947 186948 186951) Protorohippus venticolum, Hyracotherium vasacciense (15662) Xenicohippus craspedotum (186950)