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Actinopteri - Pycnodontiformes - Pycnodontidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1877Pycnodontidae Cope p. 62
1878Pycnodontidae Cope p. 298
1887Pycnodontidae Cope p. 1018
1895Pycnodontidae Woodward p. 189
1902Pycnodontidae Hay p. 372
1916Pycnodontidae Woodward p. 47
1958Pycnodontidae Arambourg and Bertin p. 2176
1960Pycnodontidae Gardiner p. 363
1963Pycnodontidae Jordan p. 614
1966Pycnodontidae Casier p. 104
1970Pycnodontidae Applegate p. 401
1975Pycnodontidae Sahni and Mishra p. 12
1981Pycnodontidae Thurmond and Jones p. 85
1987Pycnodontidae Kumar and Loyal p. 68
1988Pycnodontidae Case and Schwimmer p. 297
1996Pycnodontidae Nursall p. 137
1999Pycnodontidae Goodwin et al. p. 732
1999Pycnodontidae Weems p. 55
2003Pycnodontidae Forey et al. p. 228
2006Pycnodontidae Shimada et al. p. 21
2010Pycnodontidae Poyato-Ariza p. 651
2014Pycnodontidae Bannikov p. 25
2014Pycnodontidae Carnevale et al. p. 41

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
orderPycnodontiformesBerg 1937

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: durophageo
Diet 2: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:40:08
Modified: 2013-12-06 12:04:31
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sakmarian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 295.50000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 290.1 Ma

Collections (214 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1USA (Kansas) Stemmatodus sp. (130815)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Hungary Sphaerodus sp. (156154)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Franche-Comté) Sphaerodus minimus (149408)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (Wales) Sphaerodus sp. (72293)
Liasicus201.3 - 196.5Belgium Eomesodon liassicus (40087)
Planorbis201.3 - 196.5United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131892)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131994 131995)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom Mesodon discoides (131999) Pycnodus rugulosus (131998) Pycnodus sp., Pycnodus rugulosus, Pycnodus bucklandi, Mesodon tenuidens, Mesodon biserialis (131844)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1France Pycnodus rugulosus (131997)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Pycnodontidae indet. (31054)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France Macromesodon sp. (61378)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Midi-Pyrénées) Coelodus sp., Macromesodon sp. (61377)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom Pycnodus bucklandi (131848)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Pycnodontidae indet. (57140)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal (Leiria) Proscinetes sp. (69698)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal (Porto de Mos) Pycnodontidae indet. (196756)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Germany (Niedersachsen) Pycnodus didymus, Pycnodus ovalis, Pycnodus nicoleti, Sphaerodus irregularis, Sphaerodus mitrula, Sphaerodus submamillaris, Sphaerodus subannularis, Sphaerodus hybridus, Sphaerodus tetragonus, Sphaerodus subradiatus, Pycnodus minutus, Pycnodus jugleri, Pycnodus granulatus, Pycnodus preufsii, Pycnodus bucklandi, Pycnodus gigas (67913)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France (Basse-Normandie) Microdon sp. (74916)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Poland (West Pomerania) Pycnodontidae indet. (163141)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France (Aquitaine) Mesodon affinis, Mesodon lingua, Microdon hugii, Pycnodontidae indet., Athrodon boloniensis, Mesodon n. sp. (94532)