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Hybodontidae

Chondrichthyes - Hybodontiformes - Hybodontidae

Taxonomy
Hybodontes was named by Agassiz (1843). It was considered monophyletic by Soto et al. (2012) and Pinheiro et al. (2013).

It was synonymized subjectively with Heterodontidae by Hay (1902); it was corrected as Hybodontidae by Leidy (1873), Estes (1964), Gardiner (1966), Herman (1975), Sahni and Chhabra (1976), Case (1978), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Maisey (1987), Case and Schwimmer (1988), Delsate and Duffin (1993), Biddle (1993), Delsate and Godefroit (1995), Duffin (2001), Peng et al. (2001), Chhabra and Mishra (2002), Murry and Kirby (2002), Underwood and Rees (2002), Delsate et al. (2002), Delsate (2003), Yamagishi (2004), Heckert (2004), Rees and Underwood (2008), Ginter et al. (2010), Klug et al. (2010), Soto et al. (2012), Pinheiro et al. (2013), Maisch and Matzke (2016) and Stumpf and Kriwet (2019).

It was assigned to Plagiostomi by Leidy (1873); to Heterodontiformes by Estes (1964); to Selachii by Sahni and Chhabra (1976); to Selachii by Case (1978); to Hybodontiformes by Maisey (1987); to Ctenacanthoidei by Herman (1975) and Case and Schwimmer (1988); to Euselachii by Peng et al. (2001); to Hybodontiformes by Gardiner (1966), Delsate and Godefroit (1995) and Soto et al. (2012); and to Hybodontoidea by Thurmond and Jones (1981), Delsate and Duffin (1993), Biddle (1993), Duffin (2001), Chhabra and Mishra (2002), Murry and Kirby (2002), Underwood and Rees (2002), Delsate et al. (2002), Delsate (2003), Yamagishi (2004), Heckert (2004), Rees and Underwood (2008), Ginter et al. (2010), Klug et al. (2010), Pinheiro et al. (2013), Maisch and Matzke (2016) and Stumpf and Kriwet (2019).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1873Hybodontidae Leidy p. 351
1964Hybodontidae Estes p. 7
1966Hybodontidae Gardiner p. 44
1975Hybodontidae Herman p. 17
1976Hybodontidae Sahni and Chhabra p. 220
1978Hybodontidae Case p. 180
1981Hybodontidae Thurmond and Jones p. 40
1987Hybodontidae Maisey p. 4
1988Hybodontidae Case and Schwimmer p. 291
1993Hybodontidae Biddle p. 196
1993Hybodontidae Delsate and Duffin p. 109
1995Hybodontidae Delsate and Godefroit p. 26
2001Hybodontidae Duffin
2001Hybodontidae Peng et al. p. 5
2002Hybodontidae Chhabra and Mishra p. 152
2002Hybodontidae Delsate et al. p. 9
2002Hybodontidae Murry and Kirby p. 88
2002Hybodontidae Underwood and Rees p. 84
2003Hybodontidae Delsate p. 4
2004Hybodontidae Heckert p. 72
2004Hybodontidae Yamagishi p. 568
2008Hybodontidae Rees and Underwood p. 120
2010Hybodontidae Ginter et al. p. 89
2010Hybodontidae Klug et al. pp. 243-244
2012Hybodontidae Soto et al.
2013Hybodontidae Pinheiro et al.
2016Hybodontidae Maisch and Matzke p. 243
2019Hybodontidae Stumpf and Kriwet p. 640

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
classChondrichthyes
RankNameAuthor
subclassElasmobranchiiBonaparte 1838
infraclassEuselachii()
Hybodontida
orderHybodontiformes(Patterson 1966)
superfamilyHybodontoidea
familyHybodontidae()
familyHybodontidae()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: nektonicc
Diet: carnivorec
Created: 2004-08-17 13:49:23
Modified: 2009-12-13 03:31:01
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Wagner 2017, Carroll 1988

Age range: base of the Frasnian to the top of the Miocene or 382.70000 to 5.33300 Ma

Collections (412 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Frasnian382.7 - 372.2Russian Federation (Komi Republic) Hybodontidae indet. (133351)
Frasnian382.7 - 372.2Russian Federation Hybodontidae indet. (133345 133350)
Tournaisian358.9 - 346.7Russian Federation Hybodontidae indet. (133363)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2United Kingdom Pristicladodus dentatus (132729)
Visean346.7 - 330.9China (Gansu) Hybodontidae indet. (120301)
Virgilian - Asselian303.4 - 295.5Argentina Hybodus sp. (119028)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Russian Federation Hybodontidae indet. (133281)
Cisuralian298.9 - 272.3USA (Texas) Hybodus regularis (132969)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1USA (Kansas) Hybodus sp. (130781 130789 130814)
Artinskian - Kungurian290.1 - 272.3USA (Texas) Hybodus copei (85299 85300)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) Hybodus sp. (32181)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (South Carolina) Hybodus sp. (79363)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Wyoming) Hybodus montanensis (70253 70268 70451 70453 70454 70488 70489 70490 70500 70501) Hybodus wyomingensis, Hybodus montanensis (70269 70455 70499)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Hybodus sp. (45561 45564)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Montana) Hybodus montanensis (177498) Hybodus sp. (14462 14490)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Maryland) Hybodus sp. (83331)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Hybodus sp. (57916)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Missouri) Hybodontidae indet. (45679)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Hybodus sp. 1 (14504)
Miocene23.03 - 5.333Sri Lanka Miosynechodus mora (14149)