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Actinopteri -

Clupeocephala was named by Patterson and Rosen (1977) [ranked as a cohort by Murray et al. 2005]. It is extant.

It was assigned to Elopocephala by Nolf and Dockery (1990); to Teleostei by Cavin (1999); to Teleostei by de Figueiredo and Gallo (2004) and Murray et al. (2005); and to Osteoglossocephalai by Betancur-R et al. (2013).

Sister taxa
Euteleosteomorpha, Otomorpha (syn. Ostarioclupeomorpha, Otocephala)

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1977Clupeocephala Patterson and Rosen
1990Clupeocephala Nolf and Dockery III p. 5
1999Clupeocephala Cavin
2004Clupeocephala de Figueiredo and Gallo
2005Clupeocephala Murray et al.
2013Clupeocephala Betancur-R. et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
Teleostei(Müller 1846)
ClupeocephalaPatterson and Rosen 1977
ClupeocephalaPatterson and Rosen 1977

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2004-08-17 14:52:40
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:50:42
Source: c = class, subp = subphylum
Reference: Carroll 1988

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tithonian to the top of the Holocene or 152.10000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 150.8 Ma

Collections (1631 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Eastern Barvaria) Leptolepides sp., Orthogonikleithrus sp. (187436)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Bavaria) Leptolepides sp. (132944 150583)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France Leptolepides sp., Orthogonikleithrus sp., Orthogonikleithrus francogalliensis (24426)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Leptolepides sprattiformis (154138)
Tithonian152.1 - 145.0Greenland Cyprinidae indet. (1212 1214)
Tithonian - Berriasian152.1 - 139.8Morocco (Figuig) Siluriformes indet. (204918 204936 204979)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0Germany (Bayern) Leptolepides sp., Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (118174) Leptolepides sprattiformis (31991)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Morocco (Figuig) Cypriniformes indet. (45726)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Israel Leptolepides sp. (84472)
Early/Lower Cretaceous145.0 - 100.5Brazil (Pernambuco) Tharrhias araripis (193050 193051 193052 193053) Tharrhias araripis, Clupeocephala indet., Beurlenichthys ouricuriensis (193049)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0USA (Nebraska) Acanthichthys major (133595)
Cretaceous145.0 - 66.0Morocco (Meknes-Tafilalet) Acanthomorpha indet., Errachidia pentapsinosa, Homalopagus multispinosus, Magrebichthys nelsoni (136753)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Spain (Cuenca) Rubiesichthys gregalis, Gordichthys conquensis (28006)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45France Solea sp. (75576)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Spain (Teruel) Alepisauroidei indet. (91420)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Brazil (Alagoas) Pseudoellimma gallae (135830)
Early/Lower Aptian - Late/Upper Aptian125.45 - 112.03Brazil (Maranhao) Dastilbe elongatus (31170)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0USA (Texas) Enchodus sp. (14408)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Brazil Dastilbe crandalli, Ellimma cruzi (63322)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Mexico (Chiapas) Enchodus sp., Saurorhamphus sp. (192074) Gonorhynchiformes indet., Alepisauriformes indet., Saurorhamphus sp., Enchodontidae indet. (68835)