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Actinopteri - Pycnodontiformes

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1966Pycnodontoidei Casier p. 104
1996Pycnodontoidei Nursall p. 134
2003Pycnodontoidei Forey et al. p. 228

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
orderPycnodontiformesBerg 1937

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: durophageo
Diet 2: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:40:08
Modified: 2013-12-06 12:04:31
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sakmarian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 295.50000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 290.1 Ma

Collections (231 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1USA (Kansas) Stemmatodus sp. (130815)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Hungary Sphaerodus sp. (156154)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Italy (Lombardia) Gibbodon cenensis (59639)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Italy Brembodus ridens (121996 121997)
Alaunian215.56 - 212.0Austria Eomesodon hoeferi (207544 207548) Mesodon hoeferi (122455)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Franche-Comté) Sphaerodus minimus (149408)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3United Kingdom (Wales) Sphaerodus sp. (72293)
Liasicus201.3 - 196.5Belgium Eomesodon liassicus (40087)
Planorbis201.3 - 196.5United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131892)
Hettangian - Sinemurian201.3 - 190.8United Kingdom Pycnodus liassicus (131994 131995)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom Mesodon discoides (131999) Pycnodus rugulosus (131998) Pycnodus sp., Pycnodus rugulosus, Pycnodus bucklandi, Mesodon tenuidens, Mesodon biserialis (131844)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1France Pycnodus rugulosus (131997)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Midi-Pyrénées) Coelodus sp., Macromesodon sp. (61377)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Pycnodontidae indet. (31054)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France Macromesodon sp. (61378)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom Pycnodus bucklandi (131848)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Pycnodontidae indet. (57140)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal (Leiria) Proscinetes sp. (69698)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal (Porto de Mos) Pycnodontidae indet. (196756)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Germany (Niedersachsen) Pycnodus didymus, Pycnodus ovalis, Pycnodus nicoleti, Sphaerodus irregularis, Sphaerodus mitrula, Sphaerodus submamillaris, Sphaerodus subannularis, Sphaerodus hybridus, Sphaerodus tetragonus, Sphaerodus subradiatus, Pycnodus minutus, Pycnodus jugleri, Pycnodus granulatus, Pycnodus preufsii, Pycnodus bucklandi, Pycnodus gigas (67913)