Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections


Actinopteri - Salmoniformes

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1965Myctophoidei Casier p. 18
1970Myctophoidei Applegate p. 420
1987Myctophoidei Kumar and Loyal p. 75
2006Myctophoidei Prokofiev p. S45

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
Teleostei(Müller 1846)
ClupeocephalaPatterson and Rosen 1977
orderSalmoniformesBleeker 1859

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

A. M. Prokofiev 2006Mostly small fish, from 2.5 to 30 cm SL, short and deep-bodied, or with elongated body. Snout compressed laterally, eye usually large. Usually 0–1 supramaxillaria, as an exception, two (Sardinioides). Maxillare broadens caudally or practically not broad- ened, but always normally developed, not supported by infraorbitalia. Teeth on jaws and on palatinum more or less small, in many rows. Supraorbitale absent; antor- bitale usually present. Suborbital shelf usually present. Posttemporal fossa absent. Horizontal branch of praeo- perculum moderately or significantly reduced; subo- perculum smaller (as an exception, equal to) the oper- culum. Branchiostegal rays 7–11. Gill rakers normally developed. Cleithrum attached to the lower half of supr- acleithrum. Vertebral number 28–45. Abdominal part of the vertebral column shorter than caudal. Intermuscular bones normally developed. Dorsal fin with short base, contains 10–21 rays, begins in the anterior half or in the middle of the body. In the anal fin, 10–27 rays. Pectoral fins deeply on the sides of the body, forming an angle less than 45° with the body, usually longer than pelvic fins or equal to them (except certain Myctophidae, in which pectoral fins are reduced or absent). Scales well developed, there are no enlarged scales on the sides of the body and in the base of the caudal fin. No fulcral scales in the base of the caudal fin (except Sardinoides). Photophores present (except certain Neoscopelidae); Myctophidae, in addition to the serial photophores, have the secondary photophores and various types of luminescent glands. Swimbladder present or absent; no peritoneal sections. Eye without afocal zone. Inhabit predominantly mesopelagial, partly bathypelagial (depths 150–1200 m, rarely up to 2000 m), some spe- cies continuously occur above the continental and island slopes (Bekker, 1983), many species are interzonal. The most primitive forms were usually shallow- water.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:40:35
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:40:35
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Aptian to the top of the Burdigalian or 125.00000 to 15.97000 Ma

Collections (132 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Aptian125.0 - 113.0USA (Texas) Enchodus sp. (14408)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Mexico (Chiapas) Enchodontidae indet. (68835) Enchodus sp. (192074)
Aptian - Albian125.0 - 100.5Equatorial Guinea Enchodus sp. (129869)
Albian113.0 - 100.5USA (Texas) Enchodus sp. (27613)
Albian - Cenomanian113.0 - 93.9Mexico (Hidalgo) Enchodus zipapanensis (135815)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Brazil Enchodus longipectoralis (195791)
Late/Upper Albian - Early/Lower Cenomanian105.3 - 93.5USA (Utah) Enchodus sp. (22679)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Brazil (Maranhão) Enchodontidae indet. (67225)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Libya (Awbari) Enchodontidae indet. (45725)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Lebanon Enchodus mecoanalis, Eurypholis boissieri (124426)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Venezuela (Trujillo) Enchodontidae indet. (176561)
Cenomanian - Turonian100.5 - 89.8USA (Utah) Enchodontidae indet. (200123)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Niger (Zinder) Enchodus lamberti (75235 75236 75243 75255 75256 75258)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Japan (Fukushima) Enchodus sp. (72267)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Brazil (Paraiba) Cimolichthys sp. (134949)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Brazil (Pernambuco) Enchodus subaequilateralis (167994)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0Japan (Matsuyama) Eurypholis japonicus (161436)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Egypt (Matruh) Enchodus sp. A, Enchodus sp. B (84550)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Uzbekistan (Navoi) Eurypholis sp., Enchodontidae indet. (58208)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Palestinian Territory Parenchodus longipterygius, Enchodus brevis (11804)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Colorado) Cimolichthys nepaholica, Enchodus gladiolus, Enchodus shumardi (132505)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (South Dakota) Enchodus sp. (117819)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Israel (Yerushalayim) Parenchodus longipterygius (104755)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Saskatchewan) Enchodus sp., Enchodus gladiolus, Enchodus shumardi (22731) Enchodus sp., Enchodus shumardi (52997)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Russian Federation (Volgograd) Enchodontidae indet. (92399)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Kansas) Enchodus sp. (94538)
Middle Cenomanian - Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Colorado) Enchodus gladiolus, Enchodus shumardi (35429)
Middle Cenomanian - Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Spain (Asturias) Enchodus spp. (98396)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8USA (Kansas) Enchodus sp. (102879)
Middle Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Enchodus petrosus, Enchodus gladiolus (35365)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6Italy (Gorizia) Enchodus sp. (103811 116133)
Late/Upper Coniacian - Early/Lower Campanian89.3 - 70.6USA (Mississippi) Enchodus petrosus (164393)
Senonian - Maastrichtian89.3 - 66.0Jordan Enchodus libyeus (36256)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6USA (Kansas) Cimolichthys nepaholica (94652)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6USA (Alabama) Enchodus petrosus (81928)
Early/Lower Santonian85.8 - 83.5Congo-Brazzaville Enchodus crenulatus (191892)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Alabama) Cimolichthys nepaholica (81930) Enchodus petrosus (81932 82044 82053 82054 82055) Enchodus petrosus, Cimolichthys nepaholica (82049) Enchodus petrosus, Cimolichthys nepaholica, Enchodus saevus (81934)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Mexico (Chihuahua) Enchodus sp. (35353)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Georgia) Enchodus petrosus (35289 70720)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Maryland) Enchodus dirus (127194)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Alabama) Enchodus petrosus (82046) Enchodus sp. (90242)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (Manitoba) Cimolichthys nepaholica (36748 36749) Enchodus sp., Cimolichthys nepaholica (36707) Enchodus sp., Enchodus saevus (36750)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (New Jersey) Enchodus ferox (124222 190541)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (South Dakota) Enchodus petrosus, Cimolichthys nepaholica, Enchodus shumardi (194130) Enchodus sp. (94638 94645)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Northwest Territories) Cimolichthys sp., Enchodus sp. (106341)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) Enchodus gladiolus (88610) Pisces indet. (48725)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (North Carolina) Enchodus petrosus (57918)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Enchodus sp. (77321)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) Enchodus petrosus (14455)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Enchodus sp. (22640)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Mississippi) Enchodus sp. (207339)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) Enchodus ferox (32181)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Delaware) Enchodus sp., Enchodus ferox (27570)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Mexico) Enchodus sp. (14472)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (South Carolina) Enchodus petrosus (79363)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Israel (Southern District) Enchodus sp. (92195) Enchodus sp., Enchodus faujasi (92192)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Russian Federation (Saratov) Enchodontidae indet. (157353)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Tennessee) Enchodus sp. (7515)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Alabama) Enchodus petrosus (207338)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Egypt Enchodus tineidae (189949)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Enchodus sp. (25692)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Egypt (Al Wadi al Jadid) Enchodus sp. (54083)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Syria Enchodus elegans (117849 117850 117852 117853 117854 117855 117857 117863)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Brazil (Paraíba) Enchodus oliveirai (88070)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Andhra Pradesh) Enchodus sp., Enchodus ferox (122240)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0France Enchodus faujasi (59763)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Enchodus ferox (57916) Enchodus sp. (99138)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Maryland) Enchodus ferox (83331) Enchodus feroz (125950)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Mali (Kidal) Enchodontidae indet. (206855)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Jordan Enchodus elegans (13366)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (California) Enchodus sp. (108392)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Niger (Tahoua) Enchodontidae indet. (48868)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Greece Enchodus dirus (207367)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Greece (Lamia) Enchodus sp. (207613) Eurypholis sp. (207615)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Netherlands (Limburg) Cimolichthys sp. (116894)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Bolivia (Cochabamba) Enchodus sp. (12855)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0India (Maharashtra) Enchodus sp. (60397) Enchodus sp., Enchodus ferox (58102)
Maastrichtian - Paleocene72.1 - 56.0USA (Arkansas) Enchodus sp., Enchodus gladiolus, Enchodus ferox (145187)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) Enchodus ferox (14504 26818 46617)
Lancian70.6 - 66.0USA (North Dakota) Enchodus sp. (53234)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Jordan Enchodus elegans, Enchodus libycus (170239)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0France (Haute-Garonne) Enchodus faujasi (13218)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Morocco (Chaouia-Ouardigha) Enchodontidae indet. (92203)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0India (Rajasthan) Enchodontidae indet. (93028)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian - Early/Lower Paleocene70.6 - 61.7USA (New Jersey) Enchodus serrulatus, Enchodus ferox (26819)
Danian66.0 - 61.6Bolivia (Mizque) Enchodus oliveirai (13501)
Thanetian59.2 - 56.0USA (New Jersey) Enchodus sp., Enchodus ferox (3113)
Late/Upper Paleocene - Early/Lower Eocene58.7 - 48.6Saudi Arabia Enchodus sp. (37182)
Late/Upper Paleocene - Early/Lower Eocene58.7 - 48.6India Enchodus sp. (91316)
Ypresian56.0 - 47.8India (Himachal Pradesh) Enchodontidae indet. (31267)
Middle Eocene48.6 - 37.2Uzbekistan Enchodontidae indet. (45701 45702)
Bartonian41.3 - 38.0Spain Enchodus sp. (141924)
Burdigalian20.44 - 15.97USA (New Jersey) Phasganodus gentryi (18587)