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Ophidia (snake)

Reptilia - Squamata

Taxonomy
Ophidia was named by Latreille (1804) [first use in Latin, spelt Ophidii; first spelt Ophidia by Gravenhorst 1807: see Baur 1897]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Lee and Caldwell (2000) and Palci et al. (2013) and Caldwell et al. (2015).

It was synonymized subjectively with Serpentes by Hay (1902) and Kuhn (1966); it was corrected as Ophidii by Jaekel (1910); it was reranked as the suborder Ophidii by Jaekel (1911); it was reranked as the unranked clade Ophidia by Lee et al. (1999); it was reranked as the suborder Ophidia by Zittel (1890), Woodward (1898), Osborn (1903), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Romer (1966), Fernicola and Albino (2012), Pyron et al. (2013) and Caldwell et al. (2015).

It was assigned to Lepidosauria by Zittel (1890); to Sauria by Gadow (1898); to Lyognatha by Jaekel (1910); to Lyognathi by Jaekel (1911); to Reptilia by Owen (1842), d'Orbigny (1849), Mantell (1854), Owen (1861), Cope (1871), Cope (1875), Günther (1886), Andrews (1906) and Estes (1964); to Pythonomorpha by Lee et al. (1999) and Lee and Caldwell (2000); to Squamata by Osborn (1903), Osborn (1904) and Palci et al. (2013); to Toxicofera by Pyron et al. (2013); and to Squamata by Woodward (1898), Osborn (1903), Lambe (1908), Swinton (1934), Roxo (1937), Kuhn (1946), Romer (1966), Fernicola and Albino (2012) and Caldwell et al. (2015).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1804Ophidia Latreille
1842Ophidia Owen p. 180
1849Ophidia d'Orbigny p. 213
1854Ophidia Mantell p. 646
1861Ophidia Owen p. 312
1871Ophidia Cope p. 237
1875Ophidia Cope p. 21
1886Ophidia Günther p. 445
1890Ophidia Zittel p. 450
1898Ophidia Gadow p. 28
1898Ophidia Woodward p. 141
1903Ophidia Osborn p. 276
1904Ophidia Osborn p. 114
1906Ophidia Andrews p. 306
1908Ophidia Lambe
1910Ophidii Jaekel p. 336
1911Ophidii Jaekel p. 155
1934Ophidia Swinton p. 16
1937Ophidia Roxo p. 43
1946Ophidia Kuhn p. 62
1964Ophidia Estes p. 140
1966Ophidia Romer p. 367
1999Ophidia Lee et al. p. 510
2000Ophidia Lee and Caldwell
2012Ophidia Fernicola and Albino
2013Ophidia Palci et al.
2013Ophidia Pyron et al.
2015Ophidia Caldwell et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Lepidosauromorpha(Benton 1983)
superorderLepidosauria()
orderSquamata
suborderOphidia(Latreille 1804)
suborderOphidia(Latreille 1804)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. Owen 1861Vertebrae very numerous, procoelian, with a single transverse process on each side, and single-headed hollow ribs; no sacrum; no visible limbs.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 300 kgg
Minimum body mass: 10 gg
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: g = genus, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Holman 2000, Carroll 1988, Behler and King 1979, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Bathonian to the top of the Holocene or 167.70000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 164.7 Ma

Collections (1215 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Eophis underwoodi (39075)
Late/Upper Jurassic163.5 - 145.0USA (Utah) Serpentes indet. (191718)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Leiria) Parviraptor estesi (24563)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) Serpentes indet. (22711)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0USA (Colorado) Parviraptor sp. (53040) Serpentes indet., Parviraptor gilmorei (71476)
Early/Lower Berriasian - Early/Lower Cenomanian145.0 - 93.5Algeria (Illizi) Lapparentophis defrennei (25222)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Spain (Cuenca) Serpentes indet. (61319)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Algeria Lapparentopheidae indet., Serpentes indet. (187588)
Late/Upper Albian - Early/Lower Cenomanian105.3 - 93.5USA (Utah) Coniophis sp. (14396 117467)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Bosnia and Herzegovina (Herzegovina) Mesophis nopcsai (53519)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Brazil (Maranhão) Seismophis septentrionalis (138577)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Venezuela (Trujillo) Lunaophis aquaticus (176561)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9USA (Utah) Coniophis sp. (14385)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Morocco (Errachidia) Norisophis sp. (183549)
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Morocco (Er Rachidia) Norisophis begaa (96223)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Morocco Lapparentophis ragei (196796)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Morocco (Er Rachida) Madtsoiidae indet. (115189) Serpentes indet., Madtsoiidae indet., Nigerophiidae indet. (115190)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Palestinian Territory Haasiophis terrasanctus, Pachyrhachis problematicus, Ophidia indet., Ophiomorphus colberti (11804)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Argentina (Río Negro) Najash rionegrina (55364) Najash sp. (206599 206600)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Myanmar (Kachin) Xiaophis myanmarensis (194175)