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Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Polycotylidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1897Cimoliasaurus leucoscopelus Etheridge, Jr. p. 19 figs. Pls. 5-7
1908Polycotylidae Williston
1911Polycotylus brevispondylus Bogolubov p. 317 figs. 11, figs 1-2
1911Polycotylus ichthyospondylus tanais Bogolubov p. 321 figs. pl. 9, figs 1-3
1940Polycotylidae White p. 465 fig. 10a
1943Polycotylidae Welles p. 212
1946Polycotylidae Kuhn p. 59
1960Polycotylidae Delair p. 69
1962Dolichorhynchopidae Welles p. 4
1963Polycotylidae Persson p. 6
1963Polycotylus brevispondylus Persson p. 21
1963Polycotylus ichthyospondylus tanais Persson p. 21
1966Polycotylidae Kuhn p. 116
1968Polycotylidae Thurmond p. 1289
1981Polycotylidae Thurmond and Jones p. 141
1991Trinacromerum leucoscopelus Molnar p. 632
1996Polycotylidae Carpenter p. 267
2001Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2004Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 336 figs. Fig. 11
2005Polycotylidae Buchy et al. p. 99
2005Polycotylidae Schumacher and Everhart p. 40
2007Polycotylidae Schumacher p. 134
2008Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 665
2010Polycotylidae Ketchum and Benson p. 15
2011Polycotylidae Ketchum and Benson p. 126
2014Polycotylidae Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943
familyPolycotylidaeWilliston 1908
familyPolycotylidaeWilliston 1908

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

S. W. Williston 1908Skull with long facial rostrum and thin, high parietal crest. Supraoccipital bones separated. Palate with large interpterygoidal vacuity, the pterygoids articulating with vomers, and meeting in the middle line posteriorly; no palatine foramina. Neck but little longer than head, the vertebrae all short; ribs single headed. Coracoids meeting throughout in symphysis, with long clavicular processes articulating with clavicles and scapulae, the interclavicle present; a large interclavicular foramen; ischia elongate. Three or four epipodial bones, all broader than long. Colorado Cretaceous, North America.
T. E. White 1940"Dolicocephalic; 19 to 26 cervical vertebrae, 28 to 30 dorsals, 3 sacrals, 25 caudals; cervical ribs single-headed; posterolateral Dolicocephalic; 19 to 26 cervical vertebrae, 28 to 30 dorsals, 3 sacrals, 25 caudals; cervical ribs single-headed; posterolateral."
K. Carpenter 1996Plesiosaurs with large skulls and short necks as in Pliosauridae; long facial rostrum with long mandibular symphysis; high sagittal crest; 4-7 pairs of premaxillary teeth; teeth conical, more uniform in size than in Pliosauridae, none caniniform; pterygoids flat, plate-like underlying most of the basicranium except for long and slender interpterygoid vacuity; 19-26 cervicals; cervical ribs single-headed; epipodials short and wide.
F. R. O'Keefe 2001"Neck length short; ischium longer than pubis; maxillary/squamosal sutuer present and formed by posterior expansion of maxilla; pterygoids with distinct medial processes which meet behind posterior interpterygoid vacuities; pterygoids dished lateral to posterior interpterygoid vacuities; mandibular symphysis scoop-like or long; splenial included in mandibular symphysis; number of cervical vertebrae reduced; longitudinal pectoral bar present and formed by clavicle and coracoid; posterior perforations in coracoid; supernumerary ossifications in propodial and epipodial rows; interlocking phalanges anterior to fifth digit."
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: aquatico
Depth habitat: surfaceo
Diet: carnivoreo
Reproduction: viviparouso
Created: 2009-07-20 06:05:48
Modified: 2011-08-12 01:58:15
Source: o = order
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Kimmeridgian to the top of the Late/Upper Maastrichtian or 155.70000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (73 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais) Polycotylus suprajurensis (94534)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Australia (New South Wales) Cimoliasaurus leucoscopelus (60762)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 112.03Canada (Nunavut) Polycotylidae indet. (157245)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Canada (Alberta) Polycotylidae indet. (102994)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6USA (Wyoming) Trinacromerum sp. (105789)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6USA (Montana) Edgarosaurus muddi (97885)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Australia (Queensland) Polycotylidae indet. QM F18041 (118316)
Late/Upper Albian - Cenomanian105.3 - 93.9Russian Federation (Belgorod) Polycotylidae indet. (32314)
Late/Upper Albian - Early/Lower Cenomanian105.3 - 93.5USA (Wyoming) Polycotylus sp. (27889)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Wyoming) Plesiopleurodon wellesi (117845)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Utah) Pliosauroidea indet. (5609)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Texas) Ceraunosaurus brownorum (90465)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (South Dakota) Pahasapasaurus haasi (117819)
Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Kansas) Trinacromerum willistoni (106182)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Saskatchewan) Plesiosauria indet. (52997)
Middle Cenomanian - Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Colorado) Trinacromerum sp. (35429)
Late/Upper Cenomanian - Early/Lower Turonian99.6 - 89.3Japan (Hokkaido) Polycotylidae indet. (102078)
Late/Upper Cenomanian - Middle Turonian99.6 - 89.3USA (Utah) Eopolycotylus rankini (67973)
Middle Cenomanian - Middle Turonian99.6 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Trinacromerum bentonianum (117814)
Turonian - Early/Lower Campanian93.9 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Polycotylidae indet. (31690)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Trinacromerum bentonianum (117806)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Utah) Dolichorhynchops tropicensis (132356 132357) Palmula quadratus (150870)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Morocco (Er-Rachidia) Thililua longicollis, Manemergus anguirostris (103973)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Canada (Manitoba) Trinacromerum kirki (102074)
Early/Lower Turonian - Middle Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Trinacromerum bentonianum (117807 117809 117811 117812)
Middle Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Trinacromerum anonymum (117813 117815) Trinacromerum bentonianum (117805 117808 117810)
Late/Upper Coniacian89.3 - 85.8Antarctica Polycotylidae indet. (102091)
Late/Upper Coniacian - Early/Lower Campanian89.3 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Dolichorhynchops osborni (117856) Polycotylus dolichopus (118879) Polycotylus latipinnis (117847)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Russian Federation (Penza) Georgia penzensis (127412)
Santonian - Campanian86.3 - 72.1Canada (Manitoba) Dolichorhynchops sp. (107803)
Piripauan85.8 - 83.5New Zealand Polycotylidae indet. (83537)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Alabama) Polycotylus latipinnis (81934)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Russian Federation (Saratov) Polycotylidae indet. (141001) Trinacromeridae sp. (127413)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Sweden Polycotylidae indet., P. sp. (102883)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Sweden (Skane) Polycotylidae indet. (106411)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Texas) Trinacromerum bonneri (118185)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Canada (Manitoba) Dolichorhynchops kirki (36746 36754)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Northwest Territories) Dolichorhynchopidae indet. (106337) Dolichorhynchops osborni (106333)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Dolichorhynchops osborni (117851) Polycotylus latipinnis (117846 118183)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Russian Federation (Saratov) Polycotylidae indet. (86332)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (South Dakota) Polycotylus latipinnis (194130)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Alberta) Polycotylidae indet. (153811)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Polycotylus latippinus (114240)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (South Dakota) Dolichorhynchops osborni (117861) Dolichorhynchops osborni, Polycotylidae indet., Trinacromerum bonneri (77316)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Wyoming) Trinacromerum bonneri (77312)
Early/Lower Campanian - Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6Argentina (Río Negro) Polycotylidae indet. (32339)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (Wyoming) Dolichorhynchops sp. (14465 14480)
Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Russian Federation (Volgograd) Polycotylidae indet. (59385)
Middle Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Wyoming) Dolichorhynchops osborni (117860)
Middle Campanian - Late/Upper Campanian83.5 - 70.6Canada (Saskatchewan) Polycotylidae indet. (75030)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Argentina (Rio Negro) Polycotylidae indet. (141581)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Canada (Saskatchewan) Dolichorhynchops herschelensis (100237)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Argentina (Río Negro) Sulcusuchus erraini (142118)
Late/Upper Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Argentina (Chubut) Sulcusuchus erraini (99438)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Jordan Polycotylidae indet. (170239)