Subfamily Pholadinae Lamarck 1809 (clam)

Bivalvia - Pholadida - Pholadidae

Synonym: Zirfaeinae Gray 1851

Parent taxon: Pholadidae according to J. G. Carter et al. 2011

See also Abbott 1974, Beu 2006, Bouchet et al. 2010, Glenn 1904, Kennedy 1993 and Vokes 1980

Sister taxa: Cyrtopleura, Dactylina, Diplothyra, Jouannetiinae, Lignopholas, Martesia, Martesiinae, Martesinae, Opertochasma, Teredina, Xylophaginae

Subtaxa: Barnea Clavipholas Cyrtopleuropsis Euxinibarneini Monothyra Nipponopholas Pholadini Pholas Zirfaea

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Ecology: stationary boring suspension feeder

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Angola (1 collection), Australia (1), Ecuador (1), Japan (3), Morocco (3), Namibia (1), New Zealand (1), Peru (1), South Africa (3), Thailand (1), the United Kingdom (2), United States (29: California, Delaware, Louisiana, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia), Venezuela (1)

• Pliocene of Belgium (1), Italy (2), Japan (1), South Africa (1), Trinidad and Tobago (2), the United Kingdom (6), United States (3: California, North Carolina)

• Miocene of Argentina (1), Australia (1), Austria (1), Bulgaria (1), Colombia (2), Germany (1), Iran (2), Italy (1), Jamaica (1), Kazakhstan (1), New Zealand (1), Trinidad and Tobago (1), United States (2: Delaware, Maryland)

• Eocene of Argentina (3), France (1), Jamaica (1), the United Kingdom (1), United States (4: Alabama, Mississippi, Texas)

• Paleocene of United States (13: Alabama, Virginia)

• Cretaceous of Switzerland (2), United States (45: Alabama, California, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas)

Total: 150 collections including 161 occurrences

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