Order Istiophoriformes (ray-finned fish)

Actinopteri - Istiophoriformes

Parent taxon: Carangimorphariae according to R. Betancur-R et al. 2013

Sister taxa: Carangiformes, Centropomidae, Menidae, Pleuronectiformes, Polynemidae, Sphyraenidae, Toxotidae

Subtaxa: Istiophoridae Xiphiidae

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Ecology: nektonic omnivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of Italy (1 collection), United States (1: South Carolina)

• Blancan of United States (1: California)

• Pliocene to Pleistocene of Italy (1)

• Pliocene of France (1), Italy (2), Mexico (3), South Africa (1), United States (2: California, North Carolina)

• Miocene of Algeria (1), Austria (1), Chile (2), Panama (2), Peru (4), United States (6: California, North Carolina, Virginia)

• Oligocene of Australia (1), United States (1: South Carolina)

• Eocene of Antarctica (1), Kazakhstan (1), the United Kingdom (4), United States (5: Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina)

• Paleocene of United States (2: Maryland, New Jersey)

Total: 44 collections including 57 occurrences

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