Family Loveniidae Lambert 1905 (heart urchin)

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Loveniidae

Full reference: J. Lambert. 1905. Notes sur quelques Echinides éocéniques de l’Aude et de l’Hérault. Catalogue descriptif des fossiles nummulitiques de l’Aude et de l’Hérault. Annales de l’Université de Lyon, Nouvelle Série, I. Sciences, Médecine 17:129-164

Parent taxon: Spatangidea according to A. Kroh and A. B. Smith 2010

See also Fischer 1966 and Kroh 2007

Sister taxa: Eupatangidae, Eurypataginae, Macropneustidae, Maretiidae, Megapneustidae, Spatangidae

Subtaxa: Breynia Breyninae Chuniola Echinocardiidae Echinocardium Hemipatagus Lovenia Mazettia Verbeekia

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Ecology: slow-moving shallow infaunal deposit feeder-detritivore

Distribution:

• Quaternary of United States (2: California, South Carolina collections)

• Pliocene of Belgium (1), Japan (1), Taiwan (1), United States (15: California, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia)

• Miocene to Pliocene of Australia (2)

• Miocene of Australia (3), Belgium (1), Fiji (7), Greenland (1), Indonesia (2), Italy (6), New Zealand (4), Switzerland (3), United States (2: Maryland)

• Oligocene to Miocene of Malta (3), United States (1: Florida)

• Oligocene of Mexico (2), New Zealand (2), United States (1: Texas)

• Whaingaroan of New Zealand (1)

• Eocene of Mexico (1), United States (7: Mississippi, North Carolina)

Total: 69 collections including 75 occurrences

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