Rott (Oligocene of Germany)

Also known as Siebengebirge, Romerikenberg mine, Krautgarten mine, Geistinger Busch, Geistinger Wald, Dambruch, Dambroich

Where: North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany (50.8° N, 7.3° E: paleocoordinates 50.6° N, 4.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: MP 30 (28.4 - 23.0 Ma)

• "MP30"

Environment/lithology: lacustrine - small; poorly lithified, diatomaceous, carbonaceous shale

• According to the reconstruction of the sedimentary history, the limnic sediments of the Rott Formation were deposited in a single, relatively small and shallow lake (Mörs, 1995). This lake was at least 3 km in diameter, and was encircled by a large accretion zone, which passed into an alluvial forest. Many small rivulets are expected to have flown into the Rott Lake, but no large river could be evidenced (Mörs, 1995). The estimated mean aunual temperature (MAT) in this area at the accumulation time of lake sediments was 17.5 ± 1.2°C, based on the leaf margin analysis (Winterscheid, 2006).
• "fine layered brown coal" also called "lignites" or "Blätterkohle" or "Papierkohle" - actually these deposits are not true lignite but are bituminous, diatomaceous shale (referred to as "oil shale" by Szyndlar & Böhme, 1996); lithology etries (originally "lithified lignite") has been changed accordingly

•figures of specimens indicate lithification to a certain degree

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: mold/impression, adpression

Reposited in the BMNH, LACM

Collection methods: quarrying,

• several specimens (turtles ,snakes insects) are housed in the Institut für Paläontologie of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität, Bonn (GPIBO)

Primary reference: S. Hervet and F. de Broin. 2000. Palaeochelys mlynarskii n. sp., de l’Oligocène supérieur de Rott (Allemagne), et redescription de l’espèce type P. bussenensis Meyer, 1847. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science 331(8):563-569 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 84606: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 02.11.2008, edited by Torsten Liebrecht and Terri Cleary

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• list omits numerous plants, insects, and vertebrates described in 19th and 20th century literature
 Esociformes - Esocidae
 Osmeriformes -
Enoplophthalmus sp.6 Sauvage 1880
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
"Cyprinus papyraceus n. sp." = Palaeorutilus papyraceus3, "Palaeorutilus papyraceus" = Palaeorutilus papyraceus6, "Tarsichthys macrurus" = Tarsichthys macrurus6, "Leuciscus (Tarsichthys) tarsiger n. sp." = Tarsichthys macrurus10
"Cyprinus papyraceus n. sp." = Palaeorutilus papyraceus3 Bronn 1828 carp-like fish
Bronn speaks of "several hundred" specimens, coming from the Geistinger Busch between Rott and Dambruch (= Dambroich)
"Palaeorutilus papyraceus" = Palaeorutilus papyraceus6 Bronn 1828 carp-like fish
"Tarsichthys macrurus" = Tarsichthys macrurus6 Agassiz 1834 carp-like fish
"Leuciscus (Tarsichthys) tarsiger n. sp." = Tarsichthys macrurus10 Agassiz 1834 carp-like fish
GPIBo Ro 4100 (holotype)
 Salientia - Pelobatidae
Pelobates decheni6 spadefoot toad
Eopelobates anthracinus n. gen. n. sp.11 Parker 1929 spadefoot toad
 Salientia - Palaeobatrachidae
 Salientia - Ranidae
"Rana meriani" = Rana meriani6, "Rana noeggerathi" = Rana meriani6
"Rana meriani" = Rana meriani6 Meyer 1853 frog
"Rana noeggerathi" = Rana meriani6 Meyer 1853 frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla europaea n. sp.7
Hyla europaea n. sp.7 Noble 1928 tree frog
type was "doubtfully referred to Rana meriana by Lydekker (1890)"
 Salientia - Discoglossidae
Zaphrissa eurypelis n. gen. n. sp.2 Cope 1866 painted frog
Princeton specimen "purchased abroad in 1861" by A. Guyot
 Caudata - Urodela
Andrias scheuchzeri6 Tschudi 1837 giant salamander
Chelotriton paradoxus6 Pomel 1853 newt
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionyx sp.6 Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
"Chelydra decheni n. sp." = Chelydropsis decheni
"Chelydra decheni n. sp." = Chelydropsis decheni Meyer 1852 turtle
IPB Ro4016 - type
 Testudines -
"Palaeochelys mlynarskii n. sp." = Palaeomauremys mlynarskii
"Palaeochelys mlynarskii n. sp." = Palaeomauremys mlynarskii Hervet and de Broin 2000 turtle
Aves indet.6 Linnaeus 1758 bird
2 species
 Crocodylia -
Diplocynodon ratelii6 Pomel 1847 crocodilian
 Squamata - Lacertidae
Lacerta sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 squamates
"Lacerta" pulla6 squamates
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguini indet.1 Augé 2005 squamates
Pseudopus heymanni6 legless lizard
Pseudopus moguntinus4 Boettger 1875 legless lizard
SM specimens, mostly disarticulated; BM 42756, skeleton. See also Auge 2005.
 Squamata - Boidae
"Tropidonotus atavus n. sp." = Rottophis atavus8, "Elaphis atavus" = Rottophis atavus5, "Morelia papyracea n. sp." = Rottophis atavus9
"Tropidonotus atavus n. sp." = Rottophis atavus8 von Meyer 1855 boa
GPIBo Ro 4023 (holotype), from Romerikenberg mine, also regarded as the holotype of Coluber papyraceus Fischer 1857; BMNH 36377, described and figured as Coluber (Tropidonotus ?) atavus in von Meyer (1860, Palaeontographica 7(4)), referred to as Morelia papyracea by Troschel (1861, Archiv f. Naturgesch. 27(1)), and listed as Elaphis atavus by Lydekker (1888)
"Elaphis atavus" = Rottophis atavus5 von Meyer 1855 boa
BMNH 33065, 36378 (counterpart of 36377), 41088
"Morelia papyracea n. sp." = Rottophis atavus9 von Meyer 1855 boa
GPIBo Ro 4024, regarded as holotype
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Pseudocricetodon cf. thaleri6 Hugueney 1969 mouse
Adelomyarion vireti6 Hugueney 1969 mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Blackia aff. miocaenica6 Mein 1970 squirrel
 Rodentia - Gliridae
Peridyromys cf. murinus6 Pomel 1853 dormouse
Glirudinus glirulus6 Dehm 1935 dormouse
Bransatoglis cf. fugax6 Hugueney 1967 dormouse
 Rodentia - Eomyidae
Eomyodon weidmanni6 Engesser 1990 rodent
Rhodanomys sp.6 Depéret and Douxami 1902 rodent
Rhodanomys aff. hugueneyae6 Engesser 1987 rodent
 Rodentia - Castoridae
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae indet.6 Thomas 1897 pika
Amphilagus sp. OR Piezodus sp.
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Talpidae indet.6 Fischer de Waldheim 1817 mole
Paratalpa sp.6 Lavocat 1951 mole
Desmanella sp.6 Engesser 1972 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Soricidae "indet 1"6 Fischer 1814 shrew
Ulmensia ehrensteinensis OR Soricella discrepans
Soricidae "indet 2"6 Fischer 1814 shrew
Dinosorex sp. OR Heterosorex sp.
 Tribosphenida - Dimylidae
Dimylidae indet.6 Schlosser 1887 placental
 Chiroptera -
Chiroptera indet.6 Blumenbach 1779 bat
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Vespertilionidae indet.6 Gray 1821 vesper bat
 Carnivora - Amphicyonidae
Amphicyon sp.6 Lartet 1836 bear-dog
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
? Mustelidae indet.6 Fischer 1817 mustelid carnivore
2 species
 Ungulata - Anthracotheriidae
Microbunodon breviceps6 anthracothere
 Ungulata - Moschidae
Moschidae indet.6 Gray 1821 musk deer
Pomelomeryx sp. OR Amphitragulus sp.
 Theriiformes - Herpetotheriidae
Amphiperatherium exile6 Gervais 1848 marsupial