West Runton Freshwater Bed, Norfolk, England (Pleistocene of the United Kingdom)

Also known as WRFB

Where: Norfolk, United Kingdom (52.9° N, 1.2° E: paleocoordinates 52.9° N, 1.2° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Freshwater Bed Member (Cromer Forest Bed Formation), Middle Pleistocene (0.8 - 0.1 Ma)

• Early Middle Pleistocene. Cromerian stratotype. Pollen substage 2.

Environment/lithology:

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils, microfossils

Collection methods: Temperate climate. Temperate woodland, grass and herbs with alder carr, reedswamp and aquatic vegetation close by.

Primary reference: A. J. Stuart. 1995. Insularity and Quaternary vertebrate faunas in Britain and Ireland. In R. C. Preece, ed., Island Britain: a Quaternary perspective. Geological Society Special Publication No. 96, London. 111-125 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: biostratigraphic analysis

PaleoDB collection 49816: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 27.04.2005, edited by Mark Uhen and Evangelos Vlachos

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

unclassified
  -
Actinopteri
 Esociformes - Esocidae
 Perciformes - Percidae
 Perciformes -
Perca fluviatilis2 Linnaeus 1758 perch
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Barbus ? vulgaris2 carp-like fish
Tinca vulgaris2 carp-like fish
Osteichthyes
 Salientia - Ranidae
Rana esculenta frog
Rana esculenta/ridibunda
Rana sp.1 Linnaeus 1758 frog
Rana temporaria Linnaeus 1758 common frog
Rana temporaria2 Linnaeus 1758 common frog
 Salientia - Hylidae
Hyla arborea1 Linnaeus 1758 tree frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo sp.2 Laurenti 1768 toad
Bufo bufo Linnaeus 1758 toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Triturus sp.1 Rafinesque 1815 newt
"Triton cristatus" = Triturus cristatus2 Fitzinger 1843 Northern crested newt
Triturus vulgaris Linnaeus 1758 smooth newt
Aves
  -
Aves indet.2 Linnaeus 1758 bird
 Charadriiformes - Scolopacidae
Tringa ochropus4 Linnaeus 1758 green sandpiper
 Passeriformes - Corvidae
Garrulus ? glandarius4 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian jay
 Passeriformes - Sturnidae
Sturnus ? vulgaris4 Linnaeus 1758 European starling
 Passeriformes - Turdidae
? Turdus merula4 Linnaeus 1758 common blackbird
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Gallinula chloropus4 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian moorhen
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anas ? sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 dabbling duck
Reptilia
 Squamata - Anguidae
Anguis fragilis Linneaus 1758 Slow worm
 Squamata - Colubridae
Natrix natrix Linnaeus 1758 water snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
"Vipera berus" = Vipera (Pelias) berus, "Pelias berus" = Vipera (Pelias) berus2
"Vipera berus" = Vipera (Pelias) berus Linnaeus 1758 common adder
"Pelias berus" = Vipera (Pelias) berus2 Linnaeus 1758 common adder
Mammalia
 Primates - Cercopithecidae
Macaca sylvanus Linnaeus 1758 Barbary macaque
 Rodentia - Muridae
"Apodemus sylvaticus" = Mus sylvaticus, "Mus sylvaticus" = Mus sylvaticus2
"Apodemus sylvaticus" = Mus sylvaticus Linnaeus 1758 wood mouse
"Mus sylvaticus" = Mus sylvaticus2 Linnaeus 1758 wood mouse
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
"Clethrionomys glareolus" = Myodes vole
Arvicola (Evotomys) intermedius n. sp.2 Newton 1882 vole
Arvicola amphibius2 Linnaeus 1758 European water vole
Microtus cf. arvalis Pallas 1779 common vole
Microtus oeconomus Pallas 1776 tundra vole
"Pitymys arvaloides" = Microtus vole
"Pitymys gregaloides" = Microtus vole
Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus 1758 European hamster
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian beaver
Trogontherium cuvieri Owen 1846 beaver
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Lipotyphla - Talpidae
Desmana moschata Linnaeus 1758 Russian desman
Talpa europaea Linnaeus 1758 European mole
Talpa europaea2 Linnaeus 1758 European mole
Talpa minor Freudenberg 1914 mole
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis Toula 1902 rhinoceros
"Rhinoceros etruscus" = Stephanorhinus etruscus2 Falconer 1868 rhinoceros
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
Equus caballus2 Linnaeus 1758 horse
Equus caballus-fossilis
 Tribosphenida - Soricidae
Sorex vulgaris2 long-tailed shrew
Sorex pygmaeus2 long-tailed shrew
Sorex minutus Linnaeus 1766 Eurasian pygmy shrew
Sorex runtonensis Hinton 1911 long-tailed shrew
Sorex savini Hinton 1911 long-tailed shrew
Neomys newtoni water shrew
Beremendia fissidens Petényi 1864 shrew
 Chiroptera - Vespertilionidae
Nyctalus noctula Schreber 1774 vesper bat
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Ursus spelaeus2 Rosenmüller 1794 cave bear
Ursus deningeri Reichenau 1904 bear
 Carnivora - Phocidae
Phoca sp.2, "Erignathus barbata" = Erignathus barbatus3
Phoca sp.2 Linnaeus 1758 seal
"Erignathus barbata" = Erignathus barbatus3 Erxleben 1777 bearded seal
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lutra simplicidens Thenius 1965 otter
Pannonictis sp. Kormos 1931 mustelid carnivore
Martes sp. Frisch 1775 marten
Mustela putorius Linnaeus 1758 European polecat
Mustela nivalis Linnaeus 1766 least weasel
Mustela erminea Linnaeus 1758 stoat
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758 gray wolf
small.
 Carnivora - Felidae
cf. Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
Felis sp. Linnaeus 1758 cat
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Crocuta crocuta Erxleben 1777 spotted hyaena
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus trogontherii Pohlig 1885 mammoth
 Ungulata - Suidae
Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 wild boar
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovinae indet.2 Gray 1821 antelope
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervus elaphus Linnaeus 1758 red deer
Capreolus capreolus Linnaeus 1758 European roe deer
Dama dama Linnaeus 1758 fallow deer
"Alces latifrons" = Cervalces latifrons Johnson 1874 stag moose
 Theriiformes -
Erinaceus cf. europaeus Linnaeus 1758 hedgehog