Southern Cliff of lower Chubut River Valley, near Gaiman (Miocene of Argentina)

Also known as Gaiman locality (Fleagle 1985)

Where: Chubut, Argentina (43.3° S, 65.5° W: paleocoordinates 43.9° S, 59.7° W)

• coordinate estimated from map

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Trelew Member (Sarmiento Formation), Colhuehuapian (21.0 - 17.5 Ma)

• JA: originally entered as early Miocene but Colhuehuapian according to Kay et al. 2008, who also state that the terrestrial fossils are from "just above the Bryn Gwyn Member"

•Busker, et al. 2019: the base of the Trelew Member in La Cantera (see Bown and Fleagle, 1993; Kay et al., 2008; Kramarz, 1998)

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: paralic; lithified, concretionary, tuffaceous, sandy mudstone

• JA: originally entered by Head as terrestrial indet. with no comment; Simpson (1941, p. 14) clearly identifies the Gaiman mammals as being from "littoral" (paralic) marine deposits but Kay et al. (2008) indicate that the beds are terrestrial and the marine fossils are from an overlying bed

•Busker, et al. 2019: deposit of friable tuff above the nodular calcrete

• JA: shown in a column as being from a tuffaceous sandy mudstone that includes calcium carbonate concretions by Kay et al. (2008); lithified based on preservation of monkey skull illustrated by Kay et al. (2008)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Reposited in the MACN

• Vizcaino 1994: specimen 11753 is deposited in the Vertebrate Paleontology collection of the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences "Bernardino Rivadavia" of Buenos Aires

Primary reference: A. M. Albino. 1996. Snakes from the Miocene of Patagonia (Argentina) Part I: The Booidea. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 199(3):417-434 [J. Head/J. Head]more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 27311: authorized by Jason Head, entered by Jason Head on 01.12.2002, edited by Mark Uhen, Juan Carrillo, Jelle Zijlstra, Philip Mannion, Evangelos Vlachos and Miranta Kouvari

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• "...associated with rodents, marsupials, primates and lizards (teiids and iguanids) (Fleagle & Bown 1983). (pg. 419)"
Reptilia
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Chelonoidis gringorum7 Simpson 1942 turtle
MLP 75·5-2 and MPEF-PV - 1049, two partial shells
 Squamata - Colubridae
Colubridae indet.1 Oppel 1811 colubrid snake
 Squamata - Boidae
Waincophis sp., "? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae, Gaimanophis tenuis n. gen. n. sp.
Waincophis sp. Albino 1987 boa
"? Erycinae indet." = Erycidae Bonaparte 1825 sand boa
Gaimanophis tenuis n. gen. n. sp. Albino 1996 sand boa
Mammalia
 Primates - Cebidae
Dolichocebus gaimanensis9 Bordas 1942 monkey
See also ref. 24332. MACN 14128, cranium, holotype; MACN CH 356, M1; 362, talus; 357, M3; 358, partial Mx; 359, I1; 361, canine; 864, P2; 865, p2; 866, m2; 868a, p3; 868b, dp3; 870, c; 871, c; 872, i1 or i2; 873, p3; 876, M1; 878, P4; 896, M1 or M2; 897a, M fragment; 897b, i2?; 898, p4; 1011, dP4; 1012, I2; 1300, dentary p2-3; 1302, c; 103, c; MPEF 5146, dentary m1-2; 5147, m1-3. See also ref 71005
 Rodentia - Cephalomyidae
Cephalomyidae indet.14 Ameghino 1897 caviomorph
MACN CH 909, partial skull with right P4-M2 and left M1-M3
Cephalomyopsis hipselodontus16 Vucetich 1985 caviomorph
Soriamys gaimanensis n. gen. n. sp.11 Kramarz 2001 caviomorph
Holotype: MACN CH 1800, a fragment of left maxilla with P4 and M1. MACN CH 197, left isolated m1 or 2; MACN CH 1801, left isolated P4; MACN CH 1802, right isolated P4; MACN CH 1803, right isolated P4; MACN CH 1804, tight isolated P4; MACN CH 1805, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1806, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1807, right Mlor 2; MACN CH 1808, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1809, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1810, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1811, right M3; MACN CH 1812, left M3; MACN CH 18l3, left M3; MACN CH 1814, left M3; MACN CH 1815, left M3; MACN CH 1816, left M3; MACN CH 1817, left M3; MACN CH 1818, tight M3; MACN CH 1819, right M3; MACN CH 1820, left M3; MACN CH 1821, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1822, right Mlor 2; MACN CH 1823, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1824, right Mlor 2; MACN CH 1825, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1826, right Mlor 2; MACN CH 1827, left dp4; MACN CH 1828, right jaw fragment with m2 and m3; MACN CH 1829, right jaw fragment with the ml and the roots of the premolar; MACN CH 1830, left isolated ml?; MACN CH 1831, left mlor 2; MACN CH 1832, right Mlor 2 ; MACN CH 1833, right DP4; MACN CH 1834, right dp4; MACN CH 1835, left DP4; MACN CH 1836, right p4; MACN CH 1837, light p4; MACN CH 1838, six isolated upper molars; MACN CH 1839, left M3; MACN CH 1840, right mlor 2; MACN CH 1841, left Mlor 2; MACN CH 1842, nine isolated upper molars; MACN CH 1843, nine isolated upper molars; MACN CH 1844, eleven isolated upper molars; MACN CH 1845, eleven isolated upper molars; MACN CH 1846, fifteen isolated lower premolars; MACN CH 1847, sixty-one isolated lower molars; MACN CH 1848, two dp4 and six isolated lower molars; MACN CH 1849, four isolated upper and two lower molars; MACN CH 1850, a left isolated m1 or 2.
 Rodentia -
? Chinchilloidea indet.16 Bennett 1833 caviomorph
 Rodentia - Neoepiblemidae
? Perimys transversus16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
? Perimys incavatus16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
 Rodentia - Chinchillidae
Eoviscaccia australis12 Vucetich 1989 chinchilid
 Rodentia -
Saremmys ligcura n. gen. n. sp.4
Saremmys ligcura n. gen. n. sp.4 Busker et al. 2019 caviomorph
Holotype: MPEF-PV 11340
 Rodentia - Dasyproctidae
Australoprocta fleaglei n. gen. n. sp.10
Australoprocta fleaglei n. gen. n. sp.10 Kramarz 1998 caviomorph
 Rodentia - Eocardiidae
Luantus "sp. nov.?"16 Ameghino 1899 caviomorph
 Rodentia -
? Eosteiromys sp.16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
Eosteiromys segregatus16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
Eosteiromys homogenidens16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
Octodontoidea "gen. nov. sp. large"16 Waterhouse 1839 caviomorph
Octodontoidea "gen. nov. sp. small"16 Waterhouse 1839 caviomorph
 Rodentia - Acaremyidae
Galileomys antelucanus16 Vucetich and Kramarz 2003 caviomorph
Acaremys preminutus n. sp.3 Bordas 1939 caviomorph
MACN PV 11246, right maxillary fragment DP4-M2
 Rodentia -
Caviocricetus lucasi n. gen. n. sp.17, Prospaniomys "sp. 2"16, ? Prospaniomys priscus16, Dudumus ruigomezi n. gen. n. sp.2, Acarechimys cf. minutissimus16, "Protadelphomys latus" = Protadelphomys latus16, "Gaimanomys alwinea n. gen. n. sp." = Protadelphomys latus15
Caviocricetus lucasi n. gen. n. sp.17 Vucetich and Verzi 1996 caviomorph
Holotype-MPEF (Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio, Trelew, Chubut Province) 505, incomplete right maxilla with DP4-M3. MPEF 500, fragmentary right mandible with il and ml-2; 501, fragmentary right mandible with dp4-m3; 502, left mandible with base of il and dp4-m3; 503, fragmentary right mandible with dp4-ml; 504, fragmen- tary left mandible with ml-3; 506, left maxillary fragment with DP4-M2; 507, left maxilla with DP4-M1; 508, left mandible with base of il and ml-3; 509 fragmentary left mandible with dp4-m2; 510, right mandible with il and dp4-m3; 511, frag- mentary left mandible with il and dp4-m2; 512, fragmentary left mandible with il and dp4-ml; 513, left maxilla with DP4- M3; 514, fragmentary right mandible with dp4-m2; 515, frag- mentary right mandible with dp4-m2; 516, right mandible with dp4-m3; 517, right mandible with il and damaged ml-3; 518, left mandible with il and dp4-m3; 519, fragmentary right man- dible of an old individual with ml-2; 520, right maxilla with DP4-M2; 521, left maxilla with DP4-M1; 522 fragmentary right mandible with il and dp4-ml; 523 fragmentary left man- dible with dp4-ml; and 524, anterior part of mandible with both i1 and right dp4-m2.
Prospaniomys "sp. 2"16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
? Prospaniomys priscus16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
Dudumus ruigomezi n. gen. n. sp.2 Arnal et al. 2014 caviomorph
MACN PV CH 2020, left mandibular fragment with m1–m3; MACN PV CH 2021, right mandibular fragment with m1–m3; MACN PV CH 2022, left mandibular fragment with dp4 and m1; MACN PV CH 2023, left mandibular fragment with m1–m3; MACN PV CH 2024, right mandibular fragment with dp4–m2; MACN PV CH 2025, right mandibular fragment with m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2026, left mandibular fragment with m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2027, left mandibular fragment with dp4–m2; MACN PV CH 2028, right dp4 and m1; MACN PV CH 2029, right mandibular fragment with m1; MACN PV CH 2030, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2031, left mandibular fragment with dp4–m2; MACN PV CH 2032, left mandibular fragment with m1; MACN PV CH 2033, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2034, left dp4 and m1; MACN PV CH 2035, right mandibular fragment with dp4; MACN PV CH 2036, right mandibular fragment with m2; MACN PV CH 2037, right mandibular fragment with dp4; MACN PV CH 2038, left mandibular fragment with m1; MACN PV CH 2039, right m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2040, left mandibular fragment with m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2041, left mandibular fragment with m2; MACN PV CH 2042, left mandibular fragment with dp4; MACN PV CH 2043, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2044, right mandibular fragment with m2; MACN PV CH 2045, right mandibular fragment with m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2046, left m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2047, left m2 and m3; MACN PV CH 2048, left mandibular fragment with m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2049, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2050, m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2051, left m2 and m3; MACN PV CH 2052, right dp4 and m1; MACN PV CH 2053, left dp4 and m1; MACN PV CH 2054, left dp4; MACN PV CH 2055, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2056, right m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2057, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2058, right m1; MACN PV CH 2059, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2060, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2061, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2062, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2063, right m1 and m2; MACN PV CH 2064, left m3; MACN PV CH 2065, left dp4; MACN PV CH 2066, left m3; MACN PV CH 2067, right m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2068, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2069, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2070, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2071, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2072, left dp4; MACN PV CH 2073, right m3; MACN PV CH 2074, left m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2075, right m1 or m2; MACN PV CH 2076, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2077, left maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2078, left maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2079, left maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2080, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2081, left maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2082, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2083, right DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2084, right DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2085, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2086, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2087, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2088, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2089, right M1 and M2; MACN PV CH 2090, right DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2091, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2092, right maxillary fragment with DP4 and M1; MACN PV CH 2093, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2094, right maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2095, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2096, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2097, right maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2098, left maxillary fragment with M1; MACN PV CH 2099, left maxillary fragment with DP4–m1; MACN PV CH 2100, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2101, right maxillary fragment with M1; MACN PV CH 2102, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2103, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2104, right DP4; MACN PV CH 2105, left DP4; MACN PV CH 2106, left maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2107, right maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2108, left M1 and M2; MACN PV CH 2109, right maxillary fragment with DP4; MACN PV CH 2110, left maxillary fragment with P4; MACN PV CH 2111, left dp4; MACN PV CH 2112, left dp4; MACN PV CH 2113, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2114, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2115, upper molar; MACN PV CH 2116, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2117, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2118, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2119, right M3; MACN PV CH 2120, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2121, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2122, right M1 or M2; MACN PV CH 2123, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2124, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2125, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2126, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2127, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2128, right DP4; MACN PV CH 2129, left upper molar; MACN PV CH 2130, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2131, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2132, right upper molar; MACN PV CH 2133, right M3.
Acarechimys cf. minutissimus16 Ameghino 1887 caviomorph
"Protadelphomys latus" = Protadelphomys latus16 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
"Gaimanomys alwinea n. gen. n. sp." = Protadelphomys latus15 Ameghino 1902 caviomorph
MLP 75-II-5-9 - holotype
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Dasypodidae indet.13 Gray 1821 armadillo
Holotype of: Stegotheriopsis gaimanensis that is invalid (specimen number 11753). is not a valid taxon and the name is a partial synonym for Stenotatus centralis (Euphractinae, Eutatini) and Stegotherium variegatum (Dasypodinae, Stegotheriini)
 Ungulata - Adianthidae
"Proheptaconus trelewense n. gen. n. sp." = Proheptaconus patagonicus6
"Proheptaconus trelewense n. gen. n. sp." = Proheptaconus patagonicus6 Ameghino 1904 eutherian
MACN 11453, skull, holotype
 Polydolopimorphia - Argyrolagidae
Anargyrolagus primus n. gen. n. sp.5
Anargyrolagus primus n. gen. n. sp.5 Carlini et al. 2007 metatherian
From ref. 58277 (Carlini et al. 2007): "Holotype: MACN-Ch 1305, part of right maxilla containing P3, M1, and M2, alveoli of C, P1, and P2, and anterior part of the M3 alveolus; fragment of the bar separating the premaxillary and palatal fenestrae, and part of the maxillary root of the zygomatic arch (Fig. 1 A-B). Hypodigm: The holotype and MACN-Ch 1306, palatal fragment of a skull preserving part of a right maxilla with P3, and the alveoli of C1, P1 and P2; part of the preorbital foramen; part of the bar separating the premaxillary and palatal fenestrae, and a small fragment of the right premaxilla (Fig. 1 C); MACN-Ch 1307, fragment of right maxilla with M1-3 (M1 partially broken) and part of the zygomatic arch (Fig. 1D); MACN-Ch 1308, posterior fragment of left maxilla with M4 and part of the alveolus for M3 (Fig. 1E); MACN-Ch 1309, fragment of left mandi- bular ramus with m2-3, and alveolus for m4 (Fig. 1H); MACN-Ch 1310, fragment of a right mandibular ramus with the proximal end of i1, alveoli of i2, c1, p1-3, m1, and incomplete alveolus for m2 (Fig. 1 F-G)." From ref. 58272 (Goin and Abello 2010): "MPEF-PV 5102, fragmento mandibular derecho con el i1 y los m1– m3; MPEF-PV 5103, fragmento mandibular derecho con el i1 y los m1–m2; MPEF-PV 5291, fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los i1–m1 (Fig. 4.14–16); MPEF-PV 5298, fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los i1, p1 y los p3– m4; MPEF-PV 5299, fragmento mandibular izquierdo con el i1 y los p3–m4 (Fig. 4.17–19); MPEF-PV 5306a, frag- mento mandibular izquierdo con el i1 y los m1–m3; MPEF- PV 5473, fragmento mandibular derecho con los m3–m4; MPEF-PV 5474, fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los m1–m4 (Fig. 4.13); MPEF-PV 5295, fragmento mandibu- lar izquierdo con los m2–m4; MPEF-PV 5286, m2 izquier- do; MPEF-PV 5300, m3 izquierdo; MPEF-PV 5306b, m2 derecho; MPEF-PV 5475, m2 derecho."
 Polydolopimorphia -
Argyrolagoidea indet.8 Ameghino 1904 metatherian
MPEF-PV 4846, ?left mandibular fragment with a molariform
 Microbiotheria - Microbiotheriidae
Eomicrobiotherium mykerum8 Goin and Abello 2013 marsupial
MPEF-PV 5292, left mandibular fragment with roots of m2-3 and complete m4, from "Loma Blanca (Gaiman, Provincia de Chubut)."
 Allotheria -
Patagonia peregrina n. gen. n. sp.8
Patagonia peregrina n. gen. n. sp.8 Pascual and Carlini 1987 mammal
"Holotipo. Un fragmento de rama mandibular derecha con tres dientes yugales, la porción intra-alveolar del incisivo y el alvéolo del canino, MACN CH-869,. Material referido. Un fragmento mandibular derecho con los m1–m2 completos, MACN CH-864; fragmento mandibular derecho con los m1–m3, MACN CH-865; fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los m2–m3, MACN CH–866; fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los m1–m2, MACN CH-867; fragmento mandibular derecho con los m1–m3, MACN CH-868; fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los m1–m2, MACN CH-870; fragmento mandibular derecho con los m2–m3, MACN CH-875; mandíbula dere- cha completa con el incisivo, el canino y los m1–m3, MLP 90-II-13-15a (Fig. 5.2–3); fragmento mandibular izquierdo con los m2–m3, MLP 90-II-13-15b; fragmento mandibu- lar derecho con el incisivo y los m1–m2, MPEF-PV 4777; fragmento mandibular derecho con los m2–m3 y la porción proximal del incisivo, MPEF-PV 5296; fragmento de maxi- lar izquierdo con parte del paladar, la porción basal del arco cigomático y los M1–M3, MPEF-PV 5290 (Fig. 5.1)."