Kossom Bougoudi (Miocene to of Chad)

Also known as KB03

Where: Chad (16.3° N, 18.7° E: paleocoordinates 16.1° N, 18.2° E)

• coordinate stated in text

• local area-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Miocene to Late/Upper Miocene (11.6 - 2.6 Ma)

• fossils are shown spanning most of a 5 m section

• member-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: lacustrine; unlithified, bioturbated, green sandstone

• lithology represents "repetitive climatic fluctuations between environments of ephemeral streams and of lakes"
• "The sandstones are little or poorly cemented, without oblique stratification but strongly channeled... markedly heterogranular with an abundant supporting matrix. Frequent dessication cracks... insect bioturbations... are omnipresent... Fossils are known almost entirely from lower and upper green sandstones"

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: "focus of this paper is on the environment and faunas"

Primary reference: M. Brunet and M.P.F.T. 2000. Chad: discovery of a vertebrate fauna close to the Mio-Pliocene boundary. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20(1):205-209 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 24181: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 01.08.2002, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• list is complete but sketchy
unclassified
  -
Insecta
 Blattodea - Hodotermitidae
Hodotermitidae indet. Desneux 1904 termite
"nests"
 Dicondylia -
Hymenoptera indet. Linnaeus 1758 winged insect
"nests"
 Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae
Scarabaeidae indet. Latreille 1802 scarab beetle
"nests"
Actinopteri
 Cichliformes - Cichlidae
Cichlidae indet. Heckel 1840 cichlid
 Perciformes - Latidae
Lates niloticus Linnaeus 1758 Nile perch
latid
 Tetraodontiformes - Tetraodontidae
 Siluriformes - Ariidae
Ariidae indet. Berg 1958 Ariid catfish
said to be new
Arius gigas Ariid catfish
ariid
 Siluriformes - Mochokidae
Synodontis sp. Cuvier 1816 upside down catfish
mochokid
 Siluriformes - Clariidae
Clariidae indet. Bonaparte 1846 airbreathing catfish
"Clarias/Heterobranchus"
 Siluriformes - Bagridae
Bagrus sp. Bosc 1816 naked catfish
bagrid
 Siluriformes - Claroteidae
Clarotes sp. Kner 1855 catfish
bagrid
 Characiformes - Alestidae
Hydrocynus sp. Cuvier 1816
characid
Reptilia
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Testudinidae indet. Batsch 1788 turtle
Aves
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
Anatidae indet. Vigors 1825 waterfowl
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
cf. Ardea sp. Linnaeus 1758 heron
ardeid
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconiidae indet. Sundevall 1836 stork
Ephippiorhynchus sp. Bonaparte 1855 stork
ciconiid; said to be new
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax sp. Brisson 1760 cormorant
phalacrocoracid; "same size as P. carbo"
Reptilia
 Pseudosuchia - Gavialidae
Gavialidae indet. Adams 1854 archosaur
said to be a new genus
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Euthecodon cf. brumpti Joleaud 1920 crocodile
crocodylid
"Crocodylus lloydi" = Rimasuchus lloydi Fourtau 1918 crocodile
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus cf. niloticus Linnaeus 1766 Nile monitor
varanid
 Squamata - Pythonidae
Python aff. sebae Gmelin 1789 rock python
boid
Mammalia
 Glires -
 Rodentia - Muridae
Arvicanthis sp. Lesson 1842 grass rat
"division"
 Rodentia - Spalacidae
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Xerus sp. Hemprich and Ehrenberg 1833 African ground squirrel
said to be new
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
cf. Diceros sp. Gray 1821 black rhino
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Hipparion sp. de Christol 1832 hipparionine horse
said to be new; large
 Ferae -
Carnivora indet. Bowditch 1821 carnivoran
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canidae indet. Fischer 1817 canid
 Carnivora - Felidae
Dinofelis sp. Zdansky 1924 cat
 Carnivora - Hyaenidae
Lycyaena sp. Hensel 1863 hyaena
 Tubulidentata - Orycteropodidae
Orycteropus abundulafus n. sp.2 Lehmann et al. 2005 aardvark
said to be new
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Anancus kenyensis MacInnes 1942 gomphothere
"kenyensis morph"
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Stegodon kaisensis, Elephantinae indet., "Primelephas aff. gomphotheroides" = Primelephas korotorensis
Stegodon kaisensis Hopwood 1939 elephant
"Nkondo stage"
Elephantinae indet. Gray 1821 elephant
"primitive"
"Primelephas aff. gomphotheroides" = Primelephas korotorensis Coppens 1965 elephant
from KB 3: see Mackaye et al. 2008
 Ungulata - Suidae
Nyanzachoerus kanamensis Leakey 1958 pig
Suinae indet. Gray 1821 pig
said to be new
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Paracamelus sp. Schlosser 1903 camel
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
"Hexaprotodon harvardi" = Archaeopotamus harvardi Coryndon 1977 hippopotamus
Hexaprotodon cf. mingoz1 Boisserie et al. 2003 pygmy hippo
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Giraffidae indet. Gray 1821 giraffe
Giraffa cf. jumae Leakey 1967 giraffe
 Ungulata - Bovidae
cf. Simatherium sp. Dietrich 1941 antelope
aff. Protoryx sp. Forsyth Major 1891 antelope
cf. Antidorcas sp. Sundevall 1847 springbok
Kobus sp. Smith 1840 antelope
said to be new
cf. Aepyceros sp. Sundevall 1847 impala