Purgatory Hill: Puercan, Montana

List of taxa
Where & when
Taphonomy & methods
Metadata & references
Taxonomic list
Bivalvia - Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
? Pycnodonta indet. Fischer von Waldheim 1835
corrected as Pycnodonte
Chondrichthyes - Odontaspidida - Isuridae
Isuridae indet. Gray 1851
Chondrichthyes - Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatidae indet. Jordan 1888
Chondrichthyes - Sclerorhynchiformes - Sclerorhynchidae
cf. Ischyrhiza avonicola Estes 1964
Actinopteri - Acipenseriformes - Acipenseridae
Acipenser sp. Linnaeus 1758
Teleostei indet. Müller 1846
Actinopteri - Elopiformes - Phyllodontidae
Phyllodus toliapicus Agassiz 1844
Estes 1969
    = Phyllodus paulkatoi Estes and Hiatt 1978
Estes and Hiatt 1978
Actinopteri - Perciformes
Perciformes indet. Stirton 1953
Actinopteri - Amiiformes - Amiidae
Kindleia fragosa Jordan 1927
recombined as Cyclurus fragosus
Actinopteri - Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
Lepisosteus occidentalis (Leidy 1856)
original and current combination Lepidotus occidentalis
Proteida - Batrachosauroididae
Prodesmodon copei Estes 1964
Opisthotriton kayi Auffenberg 1961
Scapherpeton tectum Cope 1876
Lisserpeton bairdi Estes 1965
Reptilia - Testudines - Trionychidae
    = Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825
Alroy 2006
Reptilia - Testudines
Compsemys victa (Leidy 1856)
Reptilia - Testudines - Baenidae
Baenidae indet. Cope 1882
Reptilia - Crocodylia
Leidyosuchus sp. Lambe 1907
    = Crocodylia indet. Owen 1842
Alroy 2007
Brachychampsa sp. Gilmore 1911
Champsosaurus sp. Cope 1876
Mammalia - Primates
Purgatorius unio n. sp. Van Valen and Sloan 1965
(1 measurement)
Plesiadapidae indet. Trouessart 1897
(1 measurement)
    = Pandemonium dis n. sp. Van Valen 1994
Van Valen 1994
replaces ID of Van Valen 1978; see also Williamson 1996
Mammalia - Cimolestidae
cf. Gelastops sp. Simpson 1935
said to be new; repeated by Van Valen 1978
Procerberus sp. Sloan and Van Valen 1965
said to be new
    = Procerberus plutonis Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Palaeoryctidae
cf. Pararyctes sp. Van Valen 1966
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Pentacodontidae
cf. Aphronorus sp. Simpson 1935
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Leptictidae
Prodiacodon crustulum Novacek 1977
Van Valen 1978
Palaeictops sp. Matthew 1899
said to be new
Mammalia - Nyctitheriidae
Leptacodon proserpinae Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Macroscelidea - Apheliscidae
Haplaletes andakupensis Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Arctocyonidae
Protungulatum sp. Sloan and Van Valen 1965
said to be new
    = Protungulatum sloani n. sp. Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Tricentes sp. Cope 1884
said to be new
    = Chriacus calenancus Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Mammalia - Ungulata
Oxprimus albertensis
    = Ungulata indet. Linnaeus 1766
Johnston and Fox 1984
Van Valen 1978; could be Carcinodon aquilonius instead
Mammalia - Ungulata - Periptychidae
Oxyacodon josephi Van Valen 1978
    = Oxyacodon marshater Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
given in faunal list instead, this appears to be a lapsus
Tinuviel eurydice Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
could include new species "cf. Hemithlaeus"
Anisonchus oligistus Gazin 1941
Mammalia - Acreodi - Triisodontidae
Eoconodon sp. Matthew and Granger 1921
said to be new
    = Eoconodon nidhoggi Van Valen 1978
Van Valen 1978
Eoconodon sp. Matthew and Granger 1921
Van Valen 1978
    = Eoconodon hutchisoni Clemens 2011
Clemens 2011
Mammalia - Acreodi
Oxyclaenus pugnax (Simpson 1935)
present in original list; includes "Thangorodrim thalion" of Van Valen 1978; may include "O. sp." said to be new
Peradectes sp. Matthew and Granger 1921
said to be new
    = Peradectes minor n. sp. Clemens 2006
Clemens 2006
Mammalia - Multituberculata
Cimexomys minor Sloan and Van Valen 1965
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Eucosmodontidae
said to be new
    = Eucosmodontidae indet. Jepsen 1940
Alroy 2002
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Neoplagiaulacidae
Parectypodus sp. Jepsen 1930
said to be new
Mesodma formosa (Marsh 1889)
Mesodma cf. ambigua Jepsen 1940
Neoplagiaulax sp. Lemoine 1882
said to be new
    = Neoplagiaulax nelsoni n. sp. Sloan 1987
Sloan 1987
nomen nudum belonging to Neoplagiaulax
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Ptilodontidae
Kimbetohia sp. Simpson 1936
said to be new
Ptilodus tsosiensis Sloan 1981
Johnston and Fox 1984
could include Kimbetohia sp.
Mammalia - Multituberculata - Taeniolabididae
Taeniolabis taoensis (Cope 1882)
    = Taeniolabis sp. Cope 1882
Simmons 1987
see common names

Country:United States State/province:Montana County:McCone
Coordinates: 47.8° North, 106.1° West (view map)
Paleocoordinates:54.0° North, 80.8° West
Basis of coordinate:based on political unit
Geographic resolution:small collection
Period:Paleogene Epoch:Paleocene
Stage:Danian 10 m.y. bin:Cenozoic 1
Key time interval:Puercan
Age range of interval:66.00000 - 63.30000 m.y. ago
* legacy (obsolete) database fields
Formation:Tullock Member:Collins Ranch
Stratigraphic resolution:group of beds
Stratigraphy comments: just above the undated Y-Coal in chron 29n: Swisher et al. 1993; Y-Coal per se was not dated, and dated W-Coal is not identifiable in McCone County
Lithology and environment
Environment:terrestrial indet.
Modes of preservation:body
Collection methods and comments
Collection size:122 specimens
Reason for describing collection:taxonomic analysis
Museum repositories:UCMP
Taxonomic list comments:"about 5 other insectivorans" mentioned by Van Valen 1978 may include the following: mixodectid, said to be new - this is Protungulatum: Szalay 1969a insectivore, said to be new palaeoryctid, said to be new
Also known as:UCMP V-71202
Database number:14766
Authorizer:J. Alroy, P. Holroyd, S. Peters Enterer:J. Alroy, P. Holroyd, D. Weinstein
Modifier:J. Alroy Research group:vertebrate
Created:1993-02-18 00:00:00 Last modified:2007-11-16 16:39:09
Access level:the public Released:1993-02-18 00:00:00
Creative Commons license:CC BY
Reference information

Primary reference:

3489. L. M. Van Valen and R. E. Sloan. 1965. The earliest primates. Science 150(3697):743-745 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Carrano]

Secondary references:

6294 J. Alroy. 2002. Synonymies and reidentifications of North American fossil mammals. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
18120 J. Alroy. 2006. Synonymies and reidentifications of North American fossil vertebrates. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
19636 J. Alroy. 2007. Synonymies and reidentifications of North American fossil vertebrates and so forth. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
19241 W. A. Clemens. 2006. Early Paleocene (Puercan) peradectid marsupials from northeastern Montana, North American Western Interior. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 277:19-31 [P. Holroyd/P. Holroyd]
45186 W. A. Clemens. 2011. Eoconodon ("Triisodontidae", Mammalia) from the Early Paleocene (Puercan) of northeastern Montana, USA. Palaeontologia Electronica 14(3) [S. Peters/D. Weinstein/P. Mannion]
12194ETE R. Estes and R. Hiatt. 1978. Studies on fossil phyllodont fishes: a new species of Phyllodus (Elopiformes, Alubuloidea) from the Late Cretaceous of Montana. PaleBios 28:1-10 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]
64920 R. J. Estes. 1969. Studies on Fossil Phyllodont Fishes: Interrelationships and Evolution in the Phyllodontidae (Albuloidei) . Copeia 2:317-331 [P. Holroyd/P. Holroyd/M. Uhen]
2045 P. A. Johnston and R. C. Fox. 1984. Paleocene and Late Cretaceous Mammals from Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeontographica Abteilung A 186:163-222 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
3122 N. B. Simmons. 1987. A Revision of Taeniolabis (Mammalia: Multituberculata), with a New Species from the Puercan of Eastern Montana. Journal of Paleontology 61(4):794-808 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Ju]
3196 R. E. Sloan. 1987. Paleocene and latest Cretaceous mammal ages, biozones, magnetozones, rates of sedimentation, and evolution. Geological Society of America Special Paper 209:165-200 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
3347 C. C. Swisher, iii and Et al. 1993. 40Ar/39Ar dating and magnetostratigraphic correlation of the terrestrial Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary and Puercan Mammal Age, Hell Creek – Tullock formations, eastern Montana. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 30 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/J. Ju]
3485 L. M. Van Valen. 1978. The beginning of the Age of Mammals. Evolutionary Theory 4:45-80 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Carrano]
3488 L. M. Van Valen. 1994. The origin of the plesiadapid primates and the nature of Purgatorius. Evolutionary Monographs 15:1-79 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/P. Mannion]