Gobero Early Holocene Refuse (Holocene of Niger)

Where: Niger (17.0° N, 9.8° E: paleocoordinates 17.0° N, 9.8° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Holocene (0.0 - 0.0 Ma)

• age is "Phase 2-Early Holocene Occupation (7700-6200 B.C.E.)" based on numerous 14C AMS dates on enamel and bone

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: dune; lithified, calcareous sandstone

• "low, calcrete fringed paleodunes"
• calcrete is composed of "calcite-cemented aeolian sand" (lithified based on this statement and figures of specimens)

Size class: macrofossils

• human remains constitute a cemetary, and artifacts are "of the Kiffian technocomplex"; preservation of other vertebrates is not discussed

Preservation: anthropogenic

Collected in 2006, 2007

Collection methods: quarrying,

• museum repository is not discussed, but only some skeletons were "removed in plaster jackets" and prepared

•site discovered in 2000 and visited in 2003 but not worked until 2006 and 2007

Primary reference: P. C. Sereno, E. A. A. Garcea, H. Jousse, C. M. Stojanowski, J.-F. Saliège, A. Maga, O. A. Ide, K. J. Knudson, A. M. Mercuri, T. W. Stafford, Jr., T. G. Kaye, C. Giraudi, I. Massamba N'siala, E. Cocca, H. M. Moots, D. B. Dutheil, and J. P. Stivers. 2008. Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of Holocene population and environmental change. PLoS ONE 3(8):e2995 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 83305: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 15.08.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Unionida - Iridinidae
? Aspatharia sp. Bourguignat 1885 clam
 Unionida - Mutelidae
Mutela sp. Scopoli 1777 clam
 Perciformes - Latidae
Lates niloticus Linnaeus 1758 Nile perch
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae indet. Bonaparte 1832 carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Clariidae
Clarias sp. Scopoli 1777 catfish
 Siluriformes - Bagridae
Auchenoglanis sp. Günther 1865 naked catfish
 Osteoglossiformes - Mormyridae
Mormyridae indet. elephantfish
 Osteoglossiformes - Osteoglossidae
Heterotis niloticus African arowana
 Polypteriformes - Polypteridae
Polypterus sp. Lacépède 1803 bichir
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pelomedusidae
Pelusios adansonii Schweigger 1812 Adansons mud turtle
 Ornithurae -
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti 1768 Nile crocodile
 Rodentia - Thryonomyidae
Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck 1827 greater cane rat
 Carnivora - Felidae
 Carnivora - Herpestidae
Herpestidae indet. Bonaparte 1845 mongoose
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus 1758 hippo
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Redunca redunca Hamilton Smith 1827 bohor reedbuck
Kobus kob Erxleben 1777 kob
Gazella sp. Blaineville 1816 gazelle