Gobero Mid-Holocene Middens 1-4 (Holocene of Niger)

Where: Niger (17.0° N, 9.8° E: paleocoordinates 17.0° N, 9.8° E)

• coordinate estimated from map

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Holocene (0.0 - 0.0 Ma)

• age is "Phase 3-Mid-Holocene Occupation (5200-2500 B.C.E.)" based on numerous 14C AMS dates on enamel and bone

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: dune; lithified, calcareous sandstone

• "low, calcrete fringed paleodunes"
• calcrete is composed of "calcite-cemented aeolian sand" (lithified based on this statement and figures of specimens)

Size class: macrofossils

• human remains constitute a cemetary, and artifacts are of the "Tenerean industry"; preservation of other vertebrates is not discussed, but there are "numerous rodent marks on human bone and ornaments"

Collected in 2006, 2007

Collection methods: quarrying,

• museum repository is not discussed, but only some skeletons were "removed in plaster jackets" and prepared

•site discovered in 2000 and visited in 2003 but not worked until 2006 and 2007

Primary reference: P. C. Sereno, E. A. A. Garcea, H. Jousse, C. M. Stojanowski, J.-F. Saliège, A. Maga, O. A. Ide, K. J. Knudson, A. M. Mercuri, T. W. Stafford, Jr., T. G. Kaye, C. Giraudi, I. Massamba N'siala, E. Cocca, H. M. Moots, D. B. Dutheil, and J. P. Stivers. 2008. Lakeside cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 years of Holocene population and environmental change. PLoS ONE 3(8):e2995 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: archaeological analysis

PaleoDB collection 83304: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 15.08.2008

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Unionida - Iridinidae
? Aspatharia sp. Bourguignat 1885 clam
 Unionida - Mutelidae
Mutela sp. Scopoli 1777 clam
 Sorbeoconcha - Thiaridae
Melanoides tuberculata Müller 1774 snail
 Perciformes - Latidae
Lates niloticus Linnaeus 1758 Nile perch
 Cypriniformes - Cyprinidae
Cyprinidae indet. Bonaparte 1832 carp-like fish
 Siluriformes - Mochokidae
Synodontis sp. Cuvier 1816 upside down catfish
 Siluriformes - Clariidae
Clarias sp. Scopoli 1777 catfish
 Siluriformes - Bagridae
Bagridae indet. Bleeker 1852 naked catfish
 Osteoglossiformes - Gymnarchidae
Gymnarchus niloticus aba knifefish
 Osteoglossiformes - Osteoglossidae
Heterotis niloticus African arowana
 Polypteriformes - Polypteridae
Polypterus sp. Lacépède 1803 bichir
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Trionychidae indet. Gray 1825 softshell turtle
 Testudines - Pelomedusidae
Pelusios adansonii Schweigger 1812 Adansons mud turtle
 Struthioniformes - Struthionidae
Struthio camelus Linnaeus 1758 common ostrich
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti 1768 Nile crocodile
 Squamata - Varanidae
Varanus sp. Merrem 1820 monitor lizard
 Squamata - Pythonidae
Python sebae Gmelin 1789 rock python
 Primates - Hominidae
Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758 human
 Glires -
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis aureus Linnaeus 1758 golden jackal
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus 1758 hippo
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bos taurus Linnaeus 1758 cow
Redunca redunca Hamilton Smith 1827 bohor reedbuck