Haystack Cave (Upper Levels 1-3) (Pleistocene of the United States)

Also known as 5GN 189

Where: Gunnison County, Colorado (38.5° N, 107.2° W: paleocoordinates 38.5° N, 107.2° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• small collection-level geographic resolution

When: Late/Upper Pleistocene (0.1 - 0.0 Ma)

• "Two carbon 14 dates... based on bone apatite of unidentifiable fragments from levels 3 and 4 and 5 and 6. The sample from levels 3 and 4" was "dated as 14,935 +/- 610 B.P.; the sample from levels 5 and 6... was less accurate... and dated as 12,154 +/- 1,700 B.P. Both dates are corrected and indicate deposition of levels 3-6 during the late Pleistocene."

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: cave; bioturbated, conglomeratic, carbonaceous siltstone

• "a small volcanic lava tube... All sediments in the cave appear to be the result of wind deposition and erosion of the cave interior."
• "The upper three levels... were disturbed by rodents and contained numerous woodrat (Neotoma sp.) fecal pellets... The matrix... varied from fine light brown soil to dark organic soil... Roof spalls that have eroded and fallen from the cave walls were found throughout the entire cave matrix."

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Preservation: bone collector, midden

Collected by National Park Service in 1978

Collection methods: bulk, quarrying, sieve,

• "matrix was screened through one-quarter-inch screen"

Primary reference: S. D. Emslie. 1986. Late Pleistocene vertebrates from Gunnison County, Colorado. Journal of Paleontology 60(1):170-176 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 74953: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 07.09.2007

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

Aves
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Buteo sp. de Lacep├Ęde 1799 hawk
Reptilia
 Squamata - Iguanidae
Sceloporus undulatus Bosc 1802 eastern fence lizard
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Neotoma sp. Say and Ord 1825 pack rat
"Neotoma cinerea or N. mexicana"
Neotoma cinerea Ord 1815 bushy-tailed woodrat
Microtus sp. Schrank 1798 vole
cf. Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner 1843 deer mouse
 Rodentia - Sciuridae
Spermophilus richardsonii Sabine 1822 ground squirrel
Marmota flaviventris Audubon and Bachman 1841 yellow-bellied marmot
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Thomomys sp. Wied-Neuwied 1839 pocket gopher
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
Sylvilagus sp. Gray 1867 cottontail rabbit
Lepus sp. Linnaeus 1758 hare
 Lagomorpha - Ochotonidae
Ochotona princeps Richardson 1828 American pika
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Mustela frenata Lichtenstein 1831 long-tailed weasel
Taxidea taxus Schreber 1778 American badger
 Carnivora - Canidae
Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus 1758 red fox
Caninae indet. Gill 1872 canine
"Vulpes sp. or Urocyon sp."
Canis latrans Say 1823 coyote
 Ungulata - Bovidae
"Ovis catclawensis" = Ovis canadensis
"Ovis catclawensis" = Ovis canadensis Shaw 1804 bighorn sheep
"Ovis canadensis catclawensis"
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus hemionus Rafinesque 1817 mule deer