Pinjor formation, Upper Siwaliks, near Chandigarh (Pliocene of India)

Where: Panjab, India (30.7° N, 76.8° E: paleocoordinates 29.2° N, 77.3° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

When: Tatrot Formation, Pliocene (5.3 - 2.6 Ma)

• Late Pliocene. The Pinjor Formation overlies the Tatrot formation, with the contact between them dated to 2.5Ma (Gauss/Matuyama boundary).

Environment/lithology: fluvial

• Basically fluviatile. Laid down by laterally shifting rivers on a flood plain.

Size class: macrofossils

Collection methods: Local environment (based on mammals) is open grassland,with some bushland ansd wooded grassland.

Primary reference: R. Gaur and S. R. K. Chopra. 1984. Taphonomy, fauna, environment and ecology of Upper Sivaliks (Plio-Pleistocene) near Chandigarh, India. Nature 308:353-358 [A. Turner/H. O'Regan/H. O'Regan]more details

Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis

PaleoDB collection 51106: authorized by Alan Turner, entered by Hannah O'Regan on 27.05.2005

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• This faunal list is an amalgamation of specimens collected at a number of localities in the area. Gastropods, etc., are mentioned but not described. Also 'unionids' listed.
unclassified
  -
Crustacea
  -
Crustacea indet. Brünnich 1772
Ostracoda
 Podocopida - Candonidae
Candona sp. Baird 1845 ostracod
 Podocopida - Ilyocyprididae
Ilyocypris sp. Brady and Norman 1889 ostracod
Gastropoda
  -
Gastropoda indet. Cuvier 1797 snail
Actinopteri
 Siluriformes - Siluridae
Siluridae indet. Cuvier 1816 catfish
Reptilia
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
"Chelonidae indet." = Cheloniidae
"Chelonidae indet." = Cheloniidae Bonaparte 1832 sea turtle
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylidae indet. Cuvier 1807 crocodile
Mammalia
 Rodentia - Muridae
Muridae indet. Illiger 1811 mouse
MNI = 1.
 Perissodactyla - Rhinocerotidae
Rhinoceros palaeindicus Falconer and Cautley 1847 one-horned rhinoceros
MNI = 2.
Rhinoceros sivalensis Falconer and Cautley 1847 one-horned rhinoceros
MNI = 3.
Coelodonta platyrhinus wooly rhino
MNI = 2.
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sivalensis horse
MNI = 7.
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
MNI = 1. Equus subsp. nov.
 Carnivora - Viverridae
Vishnuictis sp. n. sp. Pilgrim 1932 civet
MNI = 1.
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Stegodon bombifrons elephant
MNI = 1.
Stegodon insignis elephant
MNI = 3.
Elephas platycephalus elephant
MNI = 1.
Elephas hysudriscus elephant
MNI = 3.
 Ungulata - Suidae
Sus falconeri pig
MNI = 2.
Sus sp. n. sp. Linnaeus 1758 pig
MNI = 1.
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Camelus sivalensis Falconer and Cautley 1836 camel
MNI = 1.
 Ungulata - Hippopotamidae
Hexaprotodon sivalensis Falconer and Cautley 1836 pygmy hippo
MNI = 1.
 Ungulata - Giraffidae
Sivatherium giganteum giraffe
MNI = 1.
 Ungulata - Bovidae
Bovidae indet. Gray 1821 antelope
MNI = 10.
Antilopini indet. Gray 1821 antelope
MNI = 2.
Alcelaphini indet. Brookes 1876 antelope
MNI = 3.
Reduncini indet. Knottnerus-Meyer 1907 antelope
MNI = 1.
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Cervidae indet., "Rucervus simplicidens" = Cervus
Cervidae indet. Gray 1821 deer
MNI = 2.
"Rucervus simplicidens" = Cervus deer
MNI = 1.
Charophyceae
 Charales - Feistiellaceae
 Charales - Characeae
Sphaerochara sp. Mädler 1952
Chara rantzieni stonewort
Elephas planifrons
  -
"Elephas planifrons" = Protelephas planifrons
"Elephas planifrons" = Protelephas planifrons Falconer and Cautley 1846
MNI = $.