Leisey Shell Pit 1A (Pleistocene of the United States)

Where: Hillsborough County, Florida (27.7° N, 82.5° W: paleocoordinates 27.7° N, 82.3° W)

• coordinate stated in text

When: Bermont Formation, Irvingtonian (1.8 - 0.3 Ma)

• said to be early Irvingtonian

Environment/lithology: estuary or bay; unlithified sandstone and unlithified siltstone

• "shallow coastal mangrove-lined bay located adjacent to, or at the mouth of a river"
• "unconsolidated, poorly sorted... fine-grained sand, silt, and dark brown mud" with many mollusc, vertebrate, and plant fossils

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: quarrying

Primary reference: R. C. Hulbert, Jr. and G. S. Morgan. 1989. Stratigraphy, paleoecology, and vertebrate fauna of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) of southwestern Florida. Papers in Florida Paleontology 2:1-19 [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/P. Wagner]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 20400: authorized by John Alroy, entered by John Alroy on 18.02.1993, edited by Richard Hulbert and Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

• entirely within a reversed polarity interval: MacFadden 1995

•Sr isotope date of 2.08 +/- 0.56 Ma: Jones et al. 1995

•contrary to MacFadden 1995, above evidence could place this not only in C1r.1r but also in C2r or C2r.1r; mammal biochronology is compatible with either of the former two

•date could be narrowed to C1r.1r, following MacFadden, by assuming that 1) Leisey 1A and 3A are in the same chron, and 2) the Sr dates are reliable despite the 0.75 Ma discrepancy between them; I find these assumptions to be mutually contradictory

•there are "over 15,000" vertebrate specimens, "the majority of which are from Leisey 1A" (Morgan and Hulbert 1995); 15.3% of specimens in a test square were mammalian (Pratt and Hulbert 1995), suggesting that about 2300 mammalian specimens come from this site

•from Leisey Shell Pit, exact locality unknown: Eremotherium eomigrans De Iulis and Cartelle 1999

•"Panthera cf. onca" is omitted by Berta 1995

•Nerodia sp. and cf. Coluber sp. are listed by Hulbert and Morgan, but are from other Leisey collections according to Meylan 1995

•only the most common molluscs are listed and genus names of other marine invertebrates are not given

Malacostraca indet. Latreille 1802
"two crabs"
Polychaeta indet. Grube 1850
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea sp. Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Carditida - Carditidae
Carditamera floridana Conrad 1838 clam
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Chione cancellata Linnaeus 1767 venus clam
 Basommatophora - Planorbidae
 Basommatophora - Physidae
Physella sp. Haldeman 1849 pulmonate
Bryozoa indet. Ehrenberg 1831
 Odontaspidida - Carcharodontidae
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis
"Isurus hastalis" = Cosmopolitodus hastalis Agassiz 1843 elasmobranch
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
Pristis sp. Linck 1790 sawfish
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatis sp. Rafinesque 1810 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatis sp. Cuvier 1816 eagle ray
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus 1758 great white shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Odontaspis taurus" = Carcharias taurus
"Odontaspis taurus" = Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810 sand shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Negaprion brevirostris Poey 1868 lemon shark
Galeocerdo cuvieri Peron and LeSueur 1822 tiger shark
Carcharhinus sp. de Blainville 1816 requiem shark
Carcharhinus leucas Valenciennes 1839 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus
"Hemipristis serra" = Hemipristis heteropleurus Agassiz 1844 ground shark
 Orectolobiformes - Ginglymostomatidae
Ginglymostoma cirratum Gmelin 1789 nurse shark
 Elopiformes - Megalopidae
Megalops atlanticus Valenciennes 1847
 Mugiliformes - Mugilidae
Mugil sp. Linnaeus 1758
 Carangiformes - Carangidae
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena barracuda Edwards 1771 barracuda
 Acanthomorphata - Centropomidae
Centropomus sp. Lacépède 1802
 Perciformes - Sparidae
Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus 1766 perch-like fish
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Pogonias cromis Cope 1869 black drum
 Spariformes - Sparidae
Archosargus sp. Gill 1865
 Labriformes - Labridae
Labridae indet. Cuvier 1816
 Centrarchiformes - Centrarchidae
Lepomis sp. Rafinesque 1819 sunfish
 Tetraodontiformes - Diodontidae
Diodon sp. Linnaeus 1758
 Tetraodontiformes - Balistidae
Balistes sp. Linnaeus 1758
 Siluriformes - Ictaluridae
Ictalurus sp. Rafinesque 1820 catfish
 Lepisosteiformes - Lepisosteidae
 Salientia - Ranidae
cf. Rana sp. Linnaeus 1758 frog
 Salientia - Bufonidae
Bufo terrestris Bonnaterre 1789 Southern toad
 Caudata - Urodela
Siren sp. Linnaeus 1766 siren
 Testudines - Cheloniidae
cf. Caretta caretta7 Linnaeus 1758 loggerhead sea turtle
 Testudines - Trionychidae
Apalone ferox Schneider 1783 Florida softshell turtle
 Testudines - Kinosternoidea
Kinosternon sp. von Spix 1824 mud turtle
 Testudines - Panchelydridae
"Macroclemys temmincki" = Macrochelys temminckii, "Chelydra floridana" = Chelydra serpentina10
"Macroclemys temmincki" = Macrochelys temminckii Troost 1835 Alligator snapping turtle
"Chelydra floridana" = Chelydra serpentina10 Linnaeus 1758 snapping turtle
replaces record of "Macroclemys temmincki"
 Testudines - Pantestudinidae
Hesperotestudo mlynarskii7 turtle
Gopherus polyphemus Daudin 1802 Florida gopher tortoise
 Testudines - Panemydidae
Trachemys scripta Schoepff 1792 slider
Terrapene carolina Linnaeus 1758 common box turtle
Pseudemys sp.7 Gray 1856 cooter
 Charadriiformes - Recurvirostridae
Recurvirostra sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 avocet
 Cathartiformes - Cathartidae
Gymnogyps kofordi n. sp.5 Emslie 1988 condor
Teratornis merriami6 Miller 1909 Merriam's teratorn
 Strigiformes - Strigidae
Bubo virginianus6 Gmelin 1788 great horned owl
 Gruiformes - Rallidae
Rallus sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 rail
Fulica americana6 Gmelin 1789 American coot
 Gaviiformes - Gaviidae
Gavia concinna6 Wetmore 1940 loon
 Podicipediformes - Podicipedidae
Podilymbus podiceps6 Linnaeus 1758 pied-billed grebe
Podiceps sp.6 Latham 1787 grebe
 Pelecaniformes - Ardeidae
Egretta cf. tricolor6, "Casmerodius albus" = Ardea alba6
Egretta cf. tricolor6 Statius Muller 1776 tricolor heron
"Casmerodius albus" = Ardea alba6 Linnaeus 1758 great egret
 Pelecaniformes - Threskiornithidae
Eudocimus leiseyi n. sp.6, "Ajaia chione n. sp." = Platalea6
Eudocimus leiseyi n. sp.6 Emslie 1995 ibis
"Ajaia chione n. sp." = Platalea6 spoonbill
 Pelecaniformes - Pelecanidae
Pelecanus cf. erythrorhynchos6 Gmelin 1789 American white pelican
 Ciconiiformes - Ciconiidae
Ciconia maltha6 Miller 1910 asphalt stork
 Anseriformes - Anatidae
"Anas americana" = Mareca americana6 Gmelin 1789 American wigeon
Branta dickeyi6 Miller 1924 goose
Branta canadensis6 Linnaeus 1758 Canada goose
Cygnus buccinator6 Richardson 1832 trumpeter swan
Mergus sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 merganser
Bucephala albeola6 Linnaeus 1758 bufflehead
Somateria cf. spectabilis6 Linnaeus 1758 king eider
Aythya affinis6 Eyton 1838 lesser scaup
Aythya marila6 Linnaeus 1761 greater scaup
Aythya collaris6 Donovan 1809 ring-necked duck
Aythya americana6 Eyton 1838 redhead
Anas platyrhynchos6 Linnaeus 1758 mallard
Anas crecca6 Linnaeus 1758 Eurasian teal
Anabernicula gracilenta6 Ross 1935 dabbling duck
 Phoenicopteriformes - Phoenicopteridae
Phoenicopterus ruber6 Linnaeus 1758 American flamingo
Phoenicopterus copei6 Shufeldt 1891 flamingo
 Accipitriformes - Accipitridae
Buteo sp.6 de Lacepède 1799 hawk
Aquila sp.6 Linnaeus 1758 eagle
 Suliformes - Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax sp.6 Brisson 1760 cormorant
large species
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801 American alligator
 Squamata - Anguidae
Ophisaurus compressus7 Cope 1900 island glass lizard
 Squamata - Colubridae
cf. Elaphe obsoleta7 Say 1823 black rat snake
cf. Thamnophis sp.7 Fitzinger 1843 garter snake
 Squamata - Crotalidae
cf. Agkistrodon piscivorous7 Lacépède cottonmouth
cf. Crotalus adamanteus7 Palisot de Beauvois 1799 eastern diamondback rattlesnake
 Rodentia - Cricetidae
Sigmodon libitinus8, "Pedomys sp." = Microtus8
Sigmodon libitinus8 Martin 1979 cotton rat
"Pedomys sp." = Microtus8 Schrank 1798 vole
 Rodentia - Geomyidae
Geomys pinetis Rafinesque 1817 southeastern pocket gopher
 Rodentia - Castoridae
Castoroides leiseyorum n. sp.8 Morgan and White 1995 giant beaver
 Rodentia - Hydrochoeridae
"Hydrochaeridae indet." = Hydrochoeridae8
"Hydrochaeridae indet." = Hydrochoeridae8 Gill 1872 caviomorph
 Lagomorpha - Leporidae
cf. Sylvilagus sp. Gray 1867 cottontail rabbit
possibly S. floridanus according to Morgan and White 1995
Lepus cf. townsendii8 Bachman 1839 white-tailed jackrabbit
 Perissodactyla - Tapiridae
"Tapirus haysii" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) haysii
"Tapirus haysii" = Tapirus (Helicotapirus) haysii Leidy 1860 tapir
 Perissodactyla - Equidae
Equus sp. Linnaeus 1758 horse
said to be new; E. (Hemionus) according to Hulbert 1995b
Equus cf. fraternus Leidy 1858 horse
Equus leidyi Hay 1913 horse
 Carnivora - Ursidae
Arctodus pristinus Leidy 1854 bear
 Carnivora - Procyonidae
Procyon lotor3 Linnaeus 1758 raccoon
 Carnivora - Phocidae
"Monachus tropicalis" = Neomonachus tropicalis3
"Monachus tropicalis" = Neomonachus tropicalis3 Gray 1850 Hawaiian monk seal
 Carnivora - Mustelidae
Lontra canadensis3 Schreber 1776 North American river otter
 Carnivora - Canidae
Canis armbrusteri Gidley 1913 canine
Canis edwardii Gazin 1942 canine
Urocyon cinereoargenteus3 Schreber 1775 gray fox
 Carnivora - Felidae
Smilodon gracilis Cope 1880 saber-toothed cat
Homotherium sp. Fabrini 1890 cat
Lynx rufus2 Schreber 1777 bobcat
 Cingulata - Dasypodidae
Dasypus bellus Simpson 1929 beautiful armadillo
 Cingulata - Pachyarmatheriidae
Pachyarmatherium leiseyi n. sp.4 Downing and White 1995 edentate
 Phyllophaga - Nothrotheriidae
Nothrotheriops texanus1 Hay 1916 edentate
 Xenarthra - Mylodontidae
Paramylodon harlani2 Owen 1840 Harlan's ground sloth
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Holmesina cf. floridanus Robertson 1976 edentate
 Proboscidea - Gomphotheriidae
Cuvieronius tropicus11 Cope 1884 gomphothere
 Proboscidea - Elephantidae
Mammuthus hayi11 Barbour 1915 mammoth
 Proboscidea - Mammutidae
Mammut americanum Kerr 1792 American mastodon
 Ungulata - Tayassuidae
Platygonus cf. vetus Leidy 1882 peccary
Mylohyus cf. fossilis2 Leidy 1860 peccary
 Ungulata - Camelidae
Palaeolama mirifica9 Simpson 1929 stout-legged llama
Hemiauchenia macrocephala Cope 1893 camel
 Ungulata - Cervidae
Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann 1780 white-tailed deer
Echinoidea indet. Leske 1778 sea urchin
Porifera indet. Grant 1836
boring sponge
 Zoantharia -
Scleractinia indet. Bourne 1900 stony coral
two species
Plantae indet. Haeckel 1866
black mangrove roots