Vertebrates Castilletes Formation (Miocene of Colombia)

Where: La Guajira, Colombia (11.9° N, 71.3° W: paleocoordinates 11.0° N, 67.6° W)

• coordinate stated in text

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Castilletes Formation, Early/Lower Miocene (23.0 - 16.0 Ma)

• formation-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: terrestrial; lithified, massive, gray mudstone and lithified, massive, gray, sandy mudstone

• The Castilletes Formation was deposited in a shallow marine (estuarine, lagoonal, and shallow subtidal) to fluvio-deltaic environment with strong fluvial influence.
• The formation is composed of grey massive mudstone, fossiliferous mudstone and siltstone, fossiliferous wackestone to packstone, and medium-grained to conglomeratic fossiliferous lithic to quartz sandstone. Thick successions of mudstone (~50 m) dominate the unit and form long valleys. Thin beds of biosparite and sandstone (50 cm to 2 m) are interbedded and form laterally extensive ridges. Sandstone often present planar and cross-bedded stratification. Sandy and silty facies increase toward the top of the formation, forming prominent hills. Fossiliferous horizons are common within the unit, with marine invertebrate fossils occurring in a broad range of facies (calcareous, sandy, silty, and muddy sediments), whereas terrestrial vertebrates tend to be restricted to muddy sediments and are often associated with freshwater invertebrate fossils. Sandy facies toward the top of the formation are also rich in vertebrate fossils.

Size class: macrofossils

Primary reference: J. F. Moreno, A. J. W. Hendy, L. Quiroz, N. Hoyos, D. S. Jones, V. Zapata, S. Zapata, G. A. Ballen, E. Cadena, A. L. Cardenas, J. D. Carrillo, J. D. Carrillo, D. Delgado-Sierra, J. Escobar, J. I. Martinez, C. Martinez, C. Montes, J. Moreno, N. Perez, R. Sanchez, C. Suarez and M. C. Valle. 2015. Revised stratigraphy of Neogene strata in the Cocinetas Basin, La Guajira, Colombia. Swiss Journal of Paleontology [C. Jaramillo/A. Cardenas /M. Vallejo]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 166506: authorized by Carlos Jaramillo, entered by Andrés Cardenas on 16.02.2015

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Rajiformes - Rhynchobatidae
 Rhinopristiformes - Pristidae
Pristidae sp. Bonaparte 1838 sawfish
 Myliobatiformes - Dasyatidae
Dasyatidae sp. Jordan 1888 whiptail stingray
 Myliobatiformes - Myliobatidae
Myliobatidae sp., "Rhinopteridae sp." = Rhinopterinae
Myliobatidae sp. Bonaparte 1838 eagle ray
"Rhinopteridae sp." = Rhinopterinae Jordan and Evermann 1896 cow-nosed ray
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Otodontidae sp. mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Lamnidae sp. Müller and Henle 1838 mackerel shark
 Carchariniformes - Carcharhinidae
Carcharhinidae sp. Jordan and Evermann 1896 requiem shark
 Carchariniformes - Sphyrnidae
Sphyrnidae sp. Gill 1872 hammerhead shark
 Carchariniformes - Hemigaleidae
Hemigaleidae sp. ground shark
 Orectolobiformes - Ginglymostomatidae
Ginglymostomatidae sp. Gill 1862 nurse shark
 Pristiophoriformes - Pristiophoridae
Pristiophoridae sp. Bleeker 1859 saw shark
 Acanthomorphata - Sphyraenidae
 Acanthomorphata - Sciaenidae
Sciaenidae sp. Cuvier 1828
 Spariformes - Sparidae
Sparidae sp. Cuvier 1817
 Siluriformes - Callichthyidae
Callichthyidae sp. Gill 1872 catfish
 Siluriformes - Doradidae
 Siluriformes - Ariidae
Ariidae sp. Berg 1958 Ariid catfish
 Siluriformes - Pimelodidae
Pimelodidae sp. Eigenmann and Eigenmann 1918 catfish
 Characiformes - Characidae
 Characiformes - Serrasalmidae
Serrasalmidae sp. Günther 1864
 Testudines - Panchelidae
Chelidae sp. sideneck turtle
 Testudines - Podocnemidae
"Podocnemididae sp." = Podocnemidae
"Podocnemididae sp." = Podocnemidae Cope 1868 sideneck turtle
 Aves -
 Pseudosuchia - Gavialidae
Gavialidae sp. Adams 1854 archosaur
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
Crocodylidae sp. Cuvier 1807 crocodile
 Crocodylia - Alligatoridae
Alligatoridae sp. Gray 1844 crocodilian
 Squamata - Boidae
Boidae sp. Gray 1825 boa
 Sirenia -
Sirenia sp. Illiger 1811 sirenian
 Rodentia - Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae sp. Peters 1873 caviomorph
 Xenarthra - Megatheriidae
Megatheriidae sp. Gray 1821 edentate
 Xenarthra - Pampatheriidae
Pampatheriidae sp. Paula Couto 1954 edentate
 Xenarthra - Glyptodontidae
 Cetacea -
Odontoceti sp. toothed whale
 Ceratodontiformes - Lepidosirenidae
Lepidosirenidae sp. Stirton 1953 Australian lungfish