Amuri Bluff (Cretaceous to of New Zealand)

Also known as Hamuri Bluff

Where: South Island, New Zealand (42.6° S, 173.5° E: paleocoordinates 57.7° S, 148.9° W)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Conway Formation, Campanian to Campanian (83.6 - 66.0 Ma)

• Hiller et al. (2005):

•The vast majority of reptilian remains reported from North Canterbury have come from the Conway Formation, especially from exposures at Haumuri Bluff and along the Waipara River...

•The name Conway Formation is currently applied to those stratigraphic units that have in the past been called the ‘Boulder Sands’ (Hector, 1874; McKay, 1877), ‘Concretionary Sands’ (Mason, 1941), ‘Laidmore Formation’ (Webb, 1966; 1971; Wells and Gregg, 1971), ‘Saurian Beds’ (McKay, 1877; Thomson, 1920; Wellman, 1959; Wilson, 1963), ‘Saurian Sands’ (Haast, 1871a; Wilson, 1963), ‘Septaria Clays’ (Haast, 1871b), and ‘Sulphur Sands’ (Hector, 1874; Thomson, 1920; Mason, 1941; Wilson, 1963). More detailed descriptions and synonymies of the Conway Formation can be found in Warren and Speden (1978), Browne and Field (1985), Andrews et al. (1987) and Warren (1995)...

•In part, the revision of

•Haumurian correlation is based on the development of a refined biostratigraphic subdivision of the New Zealand Upper Cretaceous founded on dinoflagellates (Roncaglia and Schiøler, 1997; Schiøler and Wilson, 1998; Roncaglia et al., 1999). Application of this biostratigraphic scheme to the Conway Formation shows it to range from middle Campanian at Haumuri Bluff to upper Maastrichtian at Waipara River (Roncaglia and Schiøler, 1997; Roncaglia et al., 1999)

Environment/lithology: basinal (); massive, concretionary, gray, silty, calcareous sandstone

• The Conway Formation was debioturbation suggests relatively slow rates of accumulation, and the jarosite content is thought to be the result of bacposited in a marine environment with restricted bottom circulation and sedimentation largely from suspension (Warren and Speden, 1978). The extent of terial reduction of seawater sulphates associated with organic carbon in a low oxygen environment (Warren and Speden, 1978). A barred submarine depression, or series of depressions, is the favored interpretation of the depositional setting (Warren and Speden, 1978; Browne and Field, 1985; Warren, 1995).
• Throughout most of its outcrop area, the Conway Formation is a soft, easily eroded, dark grey, massive, jarositic (KFe3 +3(SO4)2(OH)6) siltstone or silty sandstone in which pervasive bioturbation has all but obliterated primary sedimentary features in most exposures. Scattered large subspherical calcareous

•concretions, up to 5 m in diameter, are a distinctive characteristic of the unit, especially in the lower part. About 25% of these concretions contain reptilian bones (Warren and Speden, 1978:26). Non-spherical concretions are rare, but at one locality on Ngaroma Station along the Conway River (Fig. 1B), near the top of the formation, the remains of several reptile specimens have been found encased in irregular concretionary masses.

Size class: macrofossils

Collected by McKay, Haast, H. Travers in 1869, 1871

Primary reference: J. Hector. 1874. On the fossil Reptilia of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 6:333-358 [M. Carrano/M. Carrano/M. Carrano]more details

Purpose of describing collection: general faunal/floral analysis

PaleoDB collection 101382: authorized by Matthew Carrano, entered by Hallie Street on 21.12.2010, edited by Mark Uhen and Matthew Clapham

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)

Taxonomic list

 Foraminifera -
 Terebratulida - Terebratulidae
Terebratula sp. Müller 1776
 Arcida - Glycymerididae
"Axinaea sp." = Glycymeris
"Axinaea sp." = Glycymeris Da Costa 1778 clam
 Arcida - Cucullaeidae
Cucullaea sp. Lamarck 1801 clam
 Myalinida - Inoceramidae
Inoceramus sp. Sowerby 1814 clam
four unlisted species
 Pectinida - Pectinoidae
Pecten sp. Müller 1776 scallop
 Pectinida - Limidae
Plagiostoma sp., "Radula sp." = Lima
Plagiostoma sp. Sowerby 1814 file clam
"Radula sp." = Lima Bruguière 1797 file clam
 Pectinida - Buchiidae
"Aucella sp." = Buchia
"Aucella sp." = Buchia Rouillier 1845 scallop
 Ostreida - Gryphaeidae
Gryphaea sp. Lamarck 1801 oyster
 Ostreida - Ostreidae
Ostrea sp. Linnaeus 1758 oyster
 Mytilida - Mytilidae
Mytilus sp. Linnaeus 1758 mussel
Crenella sp. Brown 1827 mussel
 Carditida - Astartidae
Astarte sp. Sowerby 1816 clam
 Carditida - Crassatellidae
Crassatella sp. Lamarck 1799 clam
 Pholadida - Teredinidae
Teredo sp. Linnaeus 1758 clam
 Cardiida - Chamidae
Chama sp. Linnaeus 1758 jewel box
 Cardiida - Veneridae
Cytherea sp. Lamarck 1808 venus clam
 Cardiida - Cardiidae
"Protocardium sp." = Protocardia
"Protocardium sp." = Protocardia Beyrich 1845 cockle
 Hiatellida - Hiatellidae
"Panopaea sp." = Panopea
"Panopaea sp." = Panopea Menard 1807 clam
 Lucinida - Lucinidae
Lucina sp. Bruguière 1797 clam
 Trigoniida - Trigoniidae
Trigonia sp. Bruguière 1789 clam
three unlisted species
 Protobranchia - Nuculanidae
"Leda sp." = Nuculana
"Leda sp." = Nuculana Link 1807 pointed nut clam
 Ptenoglossa - Epitoniidae
Scalaria sp. Lamarck 1801 wentletrap
 Neogastropoda - Turridae
"Pleurotoma sp." = Turris
"Pleurotoma sp." = Turris Röding 1798 turrid
 Stromboidea - Struthiolariidae
Conchothyra sp. Hutton 1877 snail
 Stromboidea - Aporrhaidae
Aporrhais sp. da Costa 1778 snail
 Naticoidea - Naticidae
Natica sp. Scopoli 1777 moon snail
 Turbinoidea - Turbinidae
Turbo sp. Linnaeus 1758 snail
 Dentaliida - Dentaliidae
Dentalium sp. Linnaeus 1758 tusk shell
 Belemnoidea -
Belemnitida indet. Zittel 1895 belemnite
three unlisted species
 Ammonoidea -
Ammonitida indet. Hyatt 1889 ammonite
"Ammonites sp."
 Ammonitida - Scaphitidae
Scaphites sp. Parkinson 1811 ammonite
 Nautilida -
Nautilida indet.2 Agassiz 1847 nautiloid
 Lamniformes - Otodontidae
Otodus obliquus3 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Lamnidae
Isurus desori1 Sismonda 1849 mako shark
Carcharodon auriculatus1 Blainville 1818 white shark
Lamna marginalis3 Davis 1888 mackerel shark
Lamna apiculata1 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
Lamna crassa1 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Mitsukurinidae
Scapanorhynchus subulatus1, "Scapanorhynchus rhaphiodon" = Scapanorhynchus raphiodon1
Scapanorhynchus subulatus1 Agassiz 1843 goblin shark
"Scapanorhynchus rhaphiodon" = Scapanorhynchus raphiodon1 Agassiz 1843 goblin shark
 Lamniformes - Cretoxyrhinidae
"Lamna appendiculata" = Cretolamna appendiculata1
"Lamna appendiculata" = Cretolamna appendiculata1 Agassiz 1843 mackerel shark
 Lamniformes - Odontaspididae
"Lamna huttoni" = Odontaspis macrota3
"Lamna huttoni" = Odontaspis macrota3 Agassiz 1843 sand tiger shark
 Synechodontiformes - Palaeospinacidae
Synechodus validus n. sp.1, "Odontaspis sulcata" = Synechodus sulcatus3
Synechodus validus n. sp.1 Chapman 1918 elasmobranch
"Odontaspis sulcata" = Synechodus sulcatus3 Davis 1888 elasmobranch
 Pristiophoriformes - Pristiophoridae
"Trygon ensifer" = Ikamauius ensiler1
"Trygon ensifer" = Ikamauius ensiler1 Davis 1888 saw shark
 Hexanchiformes - Hexanchidae
Notidanus dentatus3 Woodward 1886 cow shark
 Chimaeriformes - Callorhynchidae
Callorhynchus hectori3, "Ischyodus brevirostris" = Ischyodus thurmanni3
Callorhynchus hectori3 Newton 1876 plownose chimaera
"Ischyodus brevirostris" = Ischyodus thurmanni3 Pictet and Campiche 1878 plownose chimaera
 Elopiformes - Elopidae
? Thrissopater sp.1 Gunther 1872
 Crocodylia - Crocodylidae
"Crocodilus sp." = Crocodylus
"Crocodilus sp." = Crocodylus Laurenti 1768 crocodile
Cervical and dorsal vertebrae
 Squamata - Mosasauridae
"Leiodon haumuriensis n. sp." = Mosasaurus mokoroa, Taniwhasaurus oweni n. sp.
"Leiodon haumuriensis n. sp." = Mosasaurus mokoroa Welles and Gregg 1971 mosasaur
Jaws and teeth; caudal vertebrae and chevrons; cervical vertebrae; caudal vertebrae; mandible with teeth; jaws and vertebrae
Taniwhasaurus oweni n. sp. Hector 1874 mosasaur
Vertebrae and ribs; limb and pelvic elements; skull and teeth; jaws and teeth; ribs, pelvic elements, and limb elements; vertebrae; vertebra
 Sauropterygia -
Plesiosaurus australis Owen 1861 plesiosaur
Posterior trunk and limbs
Mauisaurus brachiolatus n. sp. Hector 1874 plesiosaur
Plesiosaurus traversii n. sp. Hector 1874 plesiosaur
Vertebrae; Vertebrae and teeth; Vertebrae and chevrons
 Sauropterygia - Elasmosauridae
Mauisaurus haastii n. sp. Hector 1874 elasmosaur
Vertebrae, ribs and limbs; vertebra; limb; vertebrae; cervical vertebrae
Plesiosaurus crassicostatus Owen 1870 elasmosaur
Humerus and ribs; Cervical vertebrae
Plesiosaurus hoodii Owen 1870 elasmosaur
Vertebrae; Vertebra and phalanges
Plesiosaurus holmesii n. sp. Hector 1874 elasmosaur
Humerus; Vertebra; Vertebrae
Plesiosaurus mackayii n. sp. Hector 1874 elasmosaur
Vertebrae, pectoral elements, humerus; limb element
 Sauropterygia -
Polycotylus tenuis n. sp. Hector 1874 plesiosaur
Vertebra and humeri; vertebrae and limbs; vertebra and pelvic elements; pelvic element
Pentacrinus sp. Miller 1821 Sea lily